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History 1377 LearnSmart Notes Chapter 3

by: Sarah Brucker

History 1377 LearnSmart Notes Chapter 3 Hist 1377

Sarah Brucker

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Here's another chapter of LearnSmart Notes! I hope that you find them helpful :)
The U.S. to 1877
Mathew Clavin
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Brucker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1377 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Mathew Clavin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see The U.S. to 1877 in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
LearnSmart Notes Chapter 3 Colonial America Each new settlement in colonial New England drew up a covenant to formalize settlers’  commitment to unity and harmony.  The influence of provincial governors in colonial America was limited. Colonial assemblies were formed because royal government was so far away, and to run the  political affairs of local communities.  Most of the early English settlers in the North American colonies were laborers. Common artisans in the North included cobblers, blacksmiths, and printers. “Goodman”/”Goodwife”: The alternative term for “Lady” and “Gentleman” for the lower classes in colonial America th Skin color determined whether an individual was subject to 18  century laws limiting the rights  of blacks. Ports in Philadelphia and New York had populations larger than most English urban centers.  Between 1650 and 1775, the sex ratio of the white settlers in North America gradually improved  because more women chose to immigrate, and birth rates rose.  th New England experienced a high rate of natural populate increase in the 17  century because  there were extremely high birth rates, and exceptional longevity within the colonies. The flow of immigrants from England to the American colonies declined in the early 18  century because of better economic conditions in England.  Religions Church of England: The official faith in many colonies Puritans: Had a growing tendency for different congregations to affiliate with different  denominations Dutch Reformed: A Calvinist denomination represented in parts of New York and New Jersey American Baptists: A variety of sects united by belief in total immersion for mature believers Protestant Germans who were driven to North America and settled in Pennsylvania, where they  became known as Pennsylvania Dutch.  John Wesley: Co­founder of Methodism George Whitefield: Powerful open­air preacher who made several tours Jonathan Edwards: New England Congregationalist who attacked the doctrine of easy salvation  for all Settlers in America adopted an attitude of religious toleration because many religious traditions  existed in close proximity to one another, and conditions virtually required it.  The Great Awakening: The first major American religious revival, occurred in the 1730s and  1740s (appealed most to women).  The Chesapeake The basis of the Chesapeake economy in the 17  and 18  centuries was tobacco.  Life in the Chesapeake: Family life was much less stable and traditional than in New England.  The sex ration was less balanced than it was in New England.  Women could expect to pop out a ton of babies and rarely remain unmarried. After completing their terms of service, male indentured servants often did not receive what they  had been promised, and found themselves unprepared and ill­equipped for independence. In the Chesapeake, indentured servitude was replaced by African slavery.  Slavery Middle Passage: The journey to the New World for Africans bound for slave markets in the  Americas (the second leg of the triangular trade) Africans during the middle passage could expect to be chained, and to be given little food or water.  The system of slavery became firmly established in the early 18  century because Africans: Had no contractual protections Were not under a fixed term of servitude Created new laborers through natural increase Slaves were able to develop a society and culture of their own when they lived in larger  communities.  Characteristics of the distinct slave culture: A blending of Christianity and African folklore Strong and elaborate family structures A slave might learn carpentry, midwifery, sewing, or blacksmithing in order to be hired out to  other planters.  Midwives tended to threaten male physicians, dealt with other health issues in addition to child birth, and tended to be more popular than physicians.  Uniquely, female slaves had difficulties such as unwanted sexual advances from white planters  and overseers, and raising mulatto children whose white fathers refused to acknowledge them.  The Stono Rebellion in 1739 was the largest colonial slave revolt.  Trade/Economy th There was relatively little industry in America in the 18  century.  Causes of the rise of an entrepreneurial merchant class in colonial America: Trade protections under England’s Navigation Acts Access to markets in England and West Indies High English demand for American products To facilitate the new consumer appetites, merchants and traders began advertising their goods in  newspapers, and sent agents out into the countryside to visit wealth landowners.  Due to dependence on large­scale cash crops such as rice and tobacco, the southern economy  was less robust and diversified, and developed less of a commercial base than the northern  economy.  Though the tobacco economy was a potentially lucrative one, it was prone to sharp drops in  prices caused by increased production.  Triangular Trade:  Africa imported manufactured goods and exported slaves The West Indies imported agricultural products and exported slaves North America imported manufactured goods and exported agricultural products Europe imported agricultural goods and exported manufactured goods Education The Enlightenment: An 18  century movement that celebrated human reason and scientific  inquiry.  Colonial Americans placed high value on education despite their difficulties in gaining access to  educational resources.  The most vigorous promoters of science and scientific knowledge in colonial America were  amateur scientists.  Harvard: The first American college William and Mary: Institution established by Anglicans in Williamsburg, Virginia Yale: University founded by Congregationalists Princeton: University that emerged out of the Great Awakening as the College of New Jersey th Material taken from The Unfinished Nation, 7  edition by Alan Brinkley


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