Psy 2300 (developmental) week 2 with dr. marshall
Psy 2300 (developmental) week 2 with dr. marshall PSY 2300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2300 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Seth Marshall in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Developmental Psychology with Dr. Marshall, week 2 Cross sectional study: looks at different age groups at a single point in time Sequential design: longitudinal + cross sectional. Starts with people of different ages, tracks them through time while continuously adding subjects of various ages to the study Ethics in developmental reseach 1. Institutional review board- makes sure participants aren’t at risk for physical or psychological harm 2. Informed consent: from subject or legal guardian if subject is under 18 years old 3. Assent: verbal okay from subject (usually child) during study/ experiment 4. Full disclosure of purpose: subject must know your intentions for the study 5. Confidentiality Brain development: inside-out, bottom-up, back-front (occipital lobe-vision develops before frontal lobe- decision making) think of it like this, babies can see when they come out, but they can’t make important life decisions yet. NEUROPSYCHOLOGY Frontal lobe: executive functioning, problem solving, planning, inhibiting, short term memory. Problems: inattention (A.D.D.) problem solving, personality disorders. Phineas Gage case study: in the 1800’s a 13 pound iron rod shot up through left eye, went through the frontal lobe, and exited at the top of the skull. Gage was conscious when medical help arrived, and speaking to doctors. He was left with no left eye, facial weaknesses on the left side of his face, but no neurological deficits immediately. Over time his family members reported changes in his personality and that he became impatient, profane, etc. He would run up to women he found attractive and pinch them, and he could not hold down a job. Temporal lobe: filing cabinet (long term memory), categorization, understanding speech, producing speech, memory for words/ names. Problems: faceblindness also known as Prosopagnoisa, which is where individuals can’t recognize anyone’s face and put a name to it. In extreme cases, individuals can’t even recognize their own face, or their mother’s face. Wernicke’s aphasia: can’t understand speech, mix up words. Broca’s aphasia: Know what they can’t say, can’t put it into words Occipital lobe: visual processing. Problems: defects in vision, difficulty reading or writing, colorblindness Parietal lobe: sensory, movement: Problems: apraxia and dyscalculia Corpus callosum: connects 2 hemispheres of brain; sometimes this is severed when a patient has severe epilepsy to prevent the seizure from spreading all over the brain and contain them to a specific side. sorry for bad quality Learning is a physiological change in the brain Neuroplasticity: brain is malleable like plastic throughout the lifespan; you can always learn new things Nature and Nurture Sigmund Freud (Nurture)- what parents do affect child Charles Darwin (nature)- all behaviors are innate/inherited Genetics vs. Environment- Can we pull these apart? Kinship studies- studying siblings (often twins) Example: the Netherlands’ twin longitudinal study including over 70,000 subjects since 1985, looking at different aspects of health, comparing individuals through time, studying genetic vs. environmental affects. 1. Twins separated through adoption- psychologists studying similarities between separated twins genetic effects will not manifest themselves unless there are adequate environments for them to do so (genetic contribution of traits is usually 40-50%) How do we study nurture? 2 adopted unrelated children growing up in same environment (environmental contribution 0-10%) Same genes, same environment? Identical twins growing up in the same household are still sometimes different. Why? Because unique life experiences shape the other 50% of personality/ traits speculated by some psychologists. Does high heritability imply immutability? 3 components of Nature vs. Nurture 1. Genotype (DNA) 2. Environment (even in womb) 3. Phenotype (expression of genes) High heritability does not imply immutability? Genotype gives us a reaction range (potential height for example), but the environment interacts with these limits. For example, 2 people might have genes that say they are going to be 6’2”. One individual might grow up in a middle class well off home, play sports, be active, and fully reach their height potential by the age of 21. The second individual might grow up in the projects, having no money for good nutritious food, exposed to drugs in the teen years, not play sports because they can’t afford it, and only reach a height of 5’10” because their environment essentially stunted their growth. All goes back to that elementary experiment of raising one plant in the cupboard and one on the windowsill. Psychological Theories and how they relate to Nature vs. Nurture (from textbook) Behaviorism- Nurture Psychoanalytic- freud, early childhood experiences, nurture Attachment theory- both Behavioral genetics- Nature Developmental theorists use concepts from all theories listed above to explain developmental phenomena. Self-report- type of experiment where one reports feelings through survey Prenatal Development 3 factors: Biological- body Cognitive- thought processes Socioemotional- emotions/ relationship development PREGNANCY Germinal Stage: first 2 weeks Zygote Blastocyst (approximately 100 cells attaches to uterus wall) Embryonic stage: weeks 3-8 Major organs constructed baby hooks to maternal blood system to acquire nutrients. 20-24 days after fertilization, neural tube is forms. During this time the baby is must susceptible to teratogens (explained further below) Fetal Stage: nine weeks-birth The age of viability is 22 weeks, a baby can survive if born this early, but with many complications and lots of time in the NICU Teratogens: drug abuse, alcohol use, caffeine nicotine, parent age, nutritional deficiencies, maternal stress are all outside things that can affect the growth and development of a fetus. And that concludes week 2! Happy studying!! For any questions or clarifications please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org
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