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NHM 361-921 Module 2 Notes

by: Emily Ellis

NHM 361-921 Module 2 Notes NHM 361

Emily Ellis

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These notes cover Module 2 (Chapter 15), and give answers to the self study guide, as well as the quiz, and go over our powerpoint and briefly outline our chapter this week. Includes helpful pictur...
Nikki Bush
Class Notes
acids and bases, Blood, bodyfluid, pH
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Ellis on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 361 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Nikki Bush in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Friday, September 2, 2016 NHM 361-921: Module 2 Notes (CH. 15) “Body Fluids” • water is the most abundant molecule in the human body - accounting for 2/3 of total body weight • body water can be categorized as intracellular or extracellular fluid INTRACELLULAR FLUID- body fluid located within the cells EXTRACELLULAR FLUID- body fluid located outside the cells • can be divided further into interstitial fluid and plasma INTERSTITIAL FLUID- fluid surrounding individual cells and fluid in the lymph vessels PLASMA- the liquid portion of whole blood 1 Friday, September 2, 2016 Unique Properties of Water: • water cushions and lubricates the body’s tissues and organs • water is a great solvent due to its polarity • water is an excellent transport medium of nutrients to cells and tissues HYDROPHILIC- water loving molecules that have a sufficient number of polarized bonds or ionized groups in order for it to dissolve in water HYDROPHOBIC- molecules that are electrically neutral and are not attracted to the (+) and (-) charges of H2O AMPHIPATHIC MOLECULES- are those that consist of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts (think fatty acids) • in aqueous environments. these molecule types will typically cluster together so their polar ends will face the water & the non polar ends will be oriented away from the water HYDROLYSIS- breaking of chemical bonds DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS- formation of chemical bonds • note reaction 7.7 on p. 204 & reaction 8.2 on p. 225 • gas exchange is a critical functions of the blood • oxygen is carried from lungs to tissues because oxygen is insoluble in plasma, most oxygen is carried in RBCs bound to • hemoglobin • carbon dioxide is a common byproduct of cellular metabolism • CO2 must be transported from tissues to the lungs to be exhaled • CO2 is more soluble in plasma than oxygen, so about 5% can be transported unchanged in plasma another 10-25% of CO2 binds to plasma proteins or proteins portion of hemoglobin for • transports • most CO2 in plasma (about 75%) is in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) • can diffuse back and forth between plasma and RBC 2 Friday, September 2, 2016 • HCO3- and Cl- ions move in and vice versa in order to maintain charge neutrality and osmotic balance between plasma and RBC… this is called the CHLORIDE SHIFT • HCO3- ions entering RBCs can combine with the H+ ions to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) • an enzyme inside RBCs, carbonic anhydrase, promotes the breakdown of H2CO3 to CO2 & H2O • this action is reversible when blood reaches the lungs, the low pressure of CO2 in the lungs favors this • reaction so that H2CO3 is broken down to CO2 & H2O • CO2 diffuses from RBCs to alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs where it is expelled as exhaled air Fluid & Electrolyte Balance: Key Electrolytes: Sodium (Na+) : principle extracellular cation Potassium (K+) : principle intracellular cation Chloride (Cl-) : principle extracellular anion Phosphate ( mainly as HPO4 2-) : principle intracellular anion • these are called “electrolytes” because they can generate charge across plasma membranes Principle Cation Principle Anion Protein Content Intracellular Fluid K+ HPO4(2-) High Interstitial Fluid Na+ Cl- Low Plasma Na+ Cl- Relatively High • fluid & electrolyte balance is very important to human health HYPERKALEMIA- serum potassium is too high HYPOKALEMIA- serum potassium is too low • these may result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias 3 Friday, September 2, 2016 HYPERNATREMIA- high serum sodium • sign of dehydration HYPONATREMIA- low serum sodium • may result from diuretic medications or rarely, from excessive water intake during exercise HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA- high serum phosphate HYPPHOSPHATEMIA- low serum phosphate • concentrations of Na+ & Cl- are regulated in the blood to maintain osmotic pressure (also known as osmolality) of blood plasma • edema is an example of osmotic imbalance Homeostatic regulation of fluid balance in the body: • the hypothalamus regulates the sensation of thirst • fluid is lost through urine, air exhaled from the lungs, through the skin, & through feces • the kidneys also play a role in fluid and electrolyte balance as well as acid-base balance ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH)- reduces the excretion of water in urine by increasing reabsorption of water by kidney tubules, resulting in concentrated urine; it is also known as “vasopressin” 4 Friday, September 2, 2016 • urine is ordinarily about 96% water and 4% hate products • pH of urine is tightly maintained between 7.35-7.45 • veggies & fruits will make the urine more alkaline while high-protein foods will make the urine more acidic • acids and bases dissociate in water & conduct an electric current • acids release H+ & therefore are proton donors HCl —> H(+) + Cl(-) • bases accept H+ & are proton acceptors NaOH —> Na(+) + OH(-) water is an acid & a base • • it dissociates to form a hydroxide ion & proton, which bonds to another r water molecule H2O <—> HO(-) + H(+) • the concentration of H+ in solution is expressed by pH pH = -log[H+] • so solutions with a high [H+] have a low pH, & solutions with a low [H+] have a high pH • pH runs on a scale from 0-14 with 7 being neutral • compounds that contain a carboxyl group (R-COOH) are acids, specifically carboxylic acids • normal blood pH is maintained tightly at 7.35-7.45 ALKALOSIS- high blood pH ACIDOSIS- low blood pH both conditions are very serious as either could result in death • buffers work in the blood, the respiratory system, and the urinary system & they all • work together to maintain the acid-base balance in the blood 5 Friday, September 2, 2016 Buffer Control of Blood pH: • bicarbonate, phosphate, & plasma proteins in the blood all function as buffer systems • these buffers prevent major swings in pH of the blood when acids or bases are introduced • the bicarbonate buffer system consists of a mix of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) & carbonic acid (H2CO3) • acids and bases tend to dissociate, releasing H+ or OH- ions in the blood Respiratory Control of Blood in pH: • respiratory system helps maintain acid-base balance in the blood by regulating how much CO2 & H2O are exhaled • the more CO2 & H2O that are exhaled, the more carbonic acid is removed from the blood, which raises the blood pH to a more alkaline level • increases in CO2 induces faster and deeper breathing (hyperventilation), so that more CO2 will be expelled & blood pH normalizes • likewise, decreases in CO2 causes slower respiration rates (hypoventilation), so that more CO2 will be retained. Less CO2 exhaled = more carbonic acid = decrease in pH Urinary Control of Blood pH: • the kidneys respond to increases and decreases in blood pH by excretion of ions by urine • the distal tubes of kidney nephrons are sensitive to blood pH • if blood is too acidic, the renal tubules excrete excess H+ ions & conserve bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) • if blood is too basic, renal tubules excrete HCO3- & conserve H+ RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS- occurs when a person is hyperventilating and is expelling too much CO2 RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS- results from slow, shallow breathing and retention of CO2; example is pneumonia 6 Friday, September 2, 2016 METABOLIC ALKALOSIS- occurs when the body has lost too much acid; example is vomiting METABOLIC ACIDOSIS- occurs with the loss of too much bicarbonate or buildup of acid in the blood for a reason other than hypoventilation; examples are alcholism, kidney disease, or severe dehydration • oxygen binds to the iron (Fe2+) portion of hemoglobin for transport from the lungs (alveoli) to the cells • CO2 can be transported in 3 different ways 1. unchanged in the plasma (5%) 2. bound to the hemoglobin or plasma proteins (10-25%) - doesn’t compete with oxygen to bind to hemoglobin since CO2 is binding to protein portions 3. most transports as bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) Quiz 2: Questions & Answers 1. A fatty acid is an example of a (n) ______ molecule? amphipathic 2. A decrease in blood pH below normal will stimulate: hypoventilation 3. The normal pH of extracellular fluid and blood is: 7.4 4. High serum potassium is called: hyperkalemia 5. Carbon dioxide is transported in the bloodstream chiefly in the form of: HCO3- 6. Bicarbonate ions which diffuse into and out of red blood cells are replaced by ____ ions: Cl- 7 Friday, September 2, 2016 7. Which of the following is the major cation of plasma and extracellular fluid? Na+ 8. An increase in vasopressin secretion will result in ____ water excreted in urine More 9. Which of the following is NOT one of the properties of water? Atoms of adjacent water molecules repel one another 10. A condition of high blood pH for a reason other than respiratory dysfunction would be called? Metabolic alkalosis 8


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