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PSY 320 Week 2 Notes

by: Erin Wade

PSY 320 Week 2 Notes PSY 320

Erin Wade
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Lecture notes for week 2 Prof Amberg Some history of psychology and psychological approaches
Abnormal Psychology
Martha D Amberg
Class Notes
PSY320, abnormalpsychology, Psychology, Amberg
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 09/02/16
8/29/16  Deinstitutionalization  ­ Integrating mental patients into the community with the support of community­based  treatment facilities  ­ Patient’s rights movement: recover better or live more satisfying lives if integrated into  the community  ­ Community mental health movement: Provide coordinated mental health services to  people in community mental health centers ­ remain in their homes, while still being a  part of a community, where they get help  ­ Halfway houses: Offer people with long­term mental health problems the opportunity to  live in a structured, supportive environment  ­ Day treatment centers: Allow people to obtain treatment during the day, along with  occupational and rehabilitative therapies, live at home at night    Managed Care  ­ Collection of methods for coordinating care  ● Ranges from simple monitoring to total control over what care can be provided  and paid for  ­ Solves problems created by deinstitutionalization ­ sometimes people have a hard time  reintegrating into society    Professions within Abnormal Psychology  ­ Psychiatrists ­ medical school, give out perscriptions  ­ Clinical psychologists ­ Phd  ­ Marriage and family therapists  ­ Clinical social workers ­ deal with the more intense situations (child abuse, domestic  abuse, drug abuse)  ­ Licensed mental health counselors  ­ Psychiatric nurses    Chapter 2    Diathesis­Stress Model of the Development of Disorders  Diathesis  ­ Biological factor (genes, disordered biochemistry, brain anomalies)  ­ Social factor (maladaptive upbringing, chronic stress, etc.)  ­ Psychological factor (unconscious conflicts, poor skills, maladaptive cognitions, etc.)  +  Stress  ­ Biological trigger (onset of a disease, exposure to toxins)  ­ Social trigger (traumatic event, major loss)  ­ Psychological trigger ()  = Disorder    Biological causes of abnormality  ­ Brain dysfunction  ­ Chemical imbalances  ­ Genetic anomalies    Limbic System  ­ Regulates many instinctive behaviors  ● Reactions to stressful events and eating  ● Located around the central core of the brain  ● Interconnected with the hypothalamus  ­ Amygdala ­ critical in emotions such as fear and love  ­ Hippocampus ­ plays a role in memory    Neurotransmitters  ­ Biochemicals messengers that carry impulses from neuron to neuron, or nerve cells  throughout the brain  ­ Synapse ­ Gap between the synaptic terminals and the adjacent neurons  ­ Receptors ­ Molecules on the membrane of the adjacent neurons that receives the  impulse    Processes that affect the Neurotransmitters  ­ Reuptake ­ occurs when the neurons that initially released the neurotransmitter into the  synapse reabsorb the neurotransmitter, decreasing the amount in the synapse  ­ Degradation ­ when the receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that  breaks down the neurotransmitter into other biochemicals    Biochemical imbalances  ­ Psychological symptoms possibly associated with   ● Number and functioning of receptors for the number of dendrites  ● Malfunctioning in neurotransmitter systems    Biopsychosocial approach  ­ Combination of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that result in the  development of psychological symptoms  ● Risk factors because risk of psychological problems  ● Biological risk factors ­ genetic predisposition    Types of Neurotransmitters  ­ Serotonin  ­ Dopamine  ● Reinforcement, rewards  ● Affected by substances that activate this  ­ Norepinephrine  ­ Gamma Aminobutyric acid (GABA)    8/31/16  Behavioral Genetics  ­ Study of the genetics of personality and abnormality is concerned with the following  questions  ● To what extent are behaviors or behavioral tendencies inherited?  ● What are the processes by which genes affect behavior?    Biological Therapies  ­ Drug therapies ­ help relieve psychological symptoms by improving the functioning of  neurotransmitter systems  ­ Electroconvulsive therapy and newer brain stimulation techniques  ● Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)  ● Deep brain stimulation  ● Vagus nerve stimulation  ­ Psychosurgery ­ used rarely, and only with people who have severe disorders that do  not respond to any other forms of treatment, no other options  ● Frontal lobotomy (not done anymore)  ● Split brain for severe schizophrenia    Assessing Biological Approaches  ­ Person doesn’t have a role in their recovery process other than taking medication and  showing up for treatments  ­ Treatments are usually drug dependant and address biological issues  ● Drug side effects that can be as bad/worse than original problem  ­ Environment and psychological processes not addressed    Psychological Approaches  ­ Behavioral ­ behaviors we can modify  ● Classical conditioning ­ responses to a neutral stimuli  ● Operant conditioning ­ shaping behaviors by rewarding desired behaviors and  punishing undesired behaviors   ● Modeling and observational learning ­ modeling: new behaviors are learnt from  imitation the behaviors modeled by others, observational learning: observes the  rewards and punishments that another person receives  ­ Cognitive ­ cognitive processes we can modify  ● Not just rewards and punishments  ● Causal attributions ­ influence behavior  ● Global assumptions ­ broad beliefs of oneself, relationships and the world  ● Identify and challenge negative thought processes and dysfunctional belief  systems  ○ Helps to learn effective problem­solving techniques to deal with the  concrete problems  ○ Designed to be short term  ● Cognitive­behavioral therapy ­ cognitive techniques combined with behavioral  techniques  ● Goal of cognitive therapy  ○ assist clients in identifying irrational and maladaptive thoughts  ○ teaching clients to challenge irrational or maladaptive thoughts, and to  consider alternative ways of thinking  ○ Encourage clients to face worst fears about a situation and recognize  ways to cope  ­ Psychodynamic and Humanistic ­ viewing people as a whole part  ● All behaviors, thoughts, and emotions influenced by unconscious processes  ● Includes psychoanalysis and several newer approaches  ● Psychoanalysis:  ○ Theory of personality and psychopathology  ○ Method of investigating the mind  ­ Family Systems ­ not just one person that needs to get treated for things to get better  ● Effective in the treatment of children because they are more entwined in families  ­ Emotion­Focused Approaches ­ controlling how you respond and feel in situations    Assessing Behavioral Approaches  ­ Set the standard for scientifically testing hypotheses about how normal and abnormal  behaviors develop  ● Effectiveness extensively and systematically supported in controlled studies  ­ Could account for some disorders  ● Boots conditioned to be associated with sex study ­ could be how fetishes are  created  ­ Evidences are from laboratory studies  ­ Does not recognize free will in people’s behaviors    Assessing Cognitive Approaches  ­ Proven useful in the treatment of disorders like:  ● Sexual disorders  ● Substance abuse disorders  ­ Difficult to prove that maladaptive cognitions precede and cause disorders  ● Rather than being the symptoms or consequences of the disorders    9/2/16  Id, Ego, and Superego  ­ Human behavior is driven by libido (sexual drive) or aggressive drive, according to Freud  ­ Id ­ drives and impulses seeks immediate release  ­ Ego ­ gratifies wishes and needs in ways that remain within the rules of society  ­ Superego ­ Storehouse of rules and regulations for the conduct of behavior that are  learned from one’s parents and from society  ­ Interactions among the Id, Ego and Superego occur in the unconscious  ● Unconscious ­ completely out of our awareness  ● Preconscious ­ intermediate between the unconscious and the conscious    Psychodynamic Therapies  ­ Helping clients recognize:  ● Maladaptive coping strategies   ● Sources of unconscious conflict (cognitive dissonance)   ­ Free Association ­ freely talking about what’s going on, respond to words/questions as  quickly as possible without thinking about it too much  ­ Working through ­ repeatedly going over painful memories and difficult issues  ­ Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)  ● Emerged from modern psychodynamic theories and is short­term  ● Shifted focus from the unconscious conflicts to the client’s pattern of relationships  with important people in their lives  ● Therapist is much more structured and directive  ○ Offers interpretations much earlier  ○ Focuses on how to change current relationships    Assessing Psychodynamic Approaches  ­ Most comprehensive theories of human behavior  ­ Difficult or impossible to test its fundamental assumptions, scientifically    Humanistic Approaches  ­ Humanistic theories ­ based on the assumption that humans have an innate capacity for  goodness and for living a full life  ­ Carl Rogers approach ­ individuals naturally move toward personal growth,  self­acceptance, and self­actualization  ● Self­actualization ­ fulfillment of one’s potential for love, creativity, and meaning,  reaching maximum potential in all areas of our lives  ­ Humanistic therapy ­ goal is to help people discover their potential through  self­exploration  ­ Client­centered therapy ­ therapist communicates a genuineness in his or her role as a  helper  ● Acting as an authentic person not an authority figure  ● Showing unconditional positive regard for the client    Sociocultural Approaches  ­ Look beyond the individual or family to the larger society to understand people’s  problems  ● Risk factors for mental health problems  ○ Socioeconomic disadvantage  ○ Upheaval and disintegration of societies  ○ Social norms and policies that stigmatize and marginalize certain groups    Cross­Cultural Issues in Treatment  ­ Most psychotherapies are focused on the individual whereas most cultures are collective  ­ Psychotherapies value the expression of emotions whereas most cultures restrain them  ­ Clients are expected to initiate communication on expectations which can clash with  cultural norms (people might feel uncomfortable sharing about their lives with a stranger)  ­ Class and issues of race pose difficulty in accessing help ­ client and/or therapists might  have different expectation or not know how to act  ­ Issues of age difference, gender and ethnicity hinder treatment    Common Elements in Effective Treatments  ­ Have a positive relationship with the client  ­ Provide clients with an explanation or  interpretation of why they are suffering  ­ Encourage clients to confront painful emotions and have techniques for helping them  become less sensitive to these emotions 


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