PSY 320 Week 2 Notes
PSY 320 Week 2 Notes PSY 320
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin Wade on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at Colorado State University taught by Martha D Amberg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
8/29/16 Deinstitutionalization Integrating mental patients into the community with the support of communitybased treatment facilities Patient’s rights movement: recover better or live more satisfying lives if integrated into the community Community mental health movement: Provide coordinated mental health services to people in community mental health centers remain in their homes, while still being a part of a community, where they get help Halfway houses: Offer people with longterm mental health problems the opportunity to live in a structured, supportive environment Day treatment centers: Allow people to obtain treatment during the day, along with occupational and rehabilitative therapies, live at home at night Managed Care Collection of methods for coordinating care ● Ranges from simple monitoring to total control over what care can be provided and paid for Solves problems created by deinstitutionalization sometimes people have a hard time reintegrating into society Professions within Abnormal Psychology Psychiatrists medical school, give out perscriptions Clinical psychologists Phd Marriage and family therapists Clinical social workers deal with the more intense situations (child abuse, domestic abuse, drug abuse) Licensed mental health counselors Psychiatric nurses Chapter 2 DiathesisStress Model of the Development of Disorders Diathesis Biological factor (genes, disordered biochemistry, brain anomalies) Social factor (maladaptive upbringing, chronic stress, etc.) Psychological factor (unconscious conflicts, poor skills, maladaptive cognitions, etc.) + Stress Biological trigger (onset of a disease, exposure to toxins) Social trigger (traumatic event, major loss) Psychological trigger () = Disorder Biological causes of abnormality Brain dysfunction Chemical imbalances Genetic anomalies Limbic System Regulates many instinctive behaviors ● Reactions to stressful events and eating ● Located around the central core of the brain ● Interconnected with the hypothalamus Amygdala critical in emotions such as fear and love Hippocampus plays a role in memory Neurotransmitters Biochemicals messengers that carry impulses from neuron to neuron, or nerve cells throughout the brain Synapse Gap between the synaptic terminals and the adjacent neurons Receptors Molecules on the membrane of the adjacent neurons that receives the impulse Processes that affect the Neurotransmitters Reuptake occurs when the neurons that initially released the neurotransmitter into the synapse reabsorb the neurotransmitter, decreasing the amount in the synapse Degradation when the receiving neuron releases an enzyme into the synapse that breaks down the neurotransmitter into other biochemicals Biochemical imbalances Psychological symptoms possibly associated with ● Number and functioning of receptors for the number of dendrites ● Malfunctioning in neurotransmitter systems Biopsychosocial approach Combination of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors that result in the development of psychological symptoms ● Risk factors because risk of psychological problems ● Biological risk factors genetic predisposition Types of Neurotransmitters Serotonin Dopamine ● Reinforcement, rewards ● Affected by substances that activate this Norepinephrine Gamma Aminobutyric acid (GABA) 8/31/16 Behavioral Genetics Study of the genetics of personality and abnormality is concerned with the following questions ● To what extent are behaviors or behavioral tendencies inherited? ● What are the processes by which genes affect behavior? Biological Therapies Drug therapies help relieve psychological symptoms by improving the functioning of neurotransmitter systems Electroconvulsive therapy and newer brain stimulation techniques ● Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) ● Deep brain stimulation ● Vagus nerve stimulation Psychosurgery used rarely, and only with people who have severe disorders that do not respond to any other forms of treatment, no other options ● Frontal lobotomy (not done anymore) ● Split brain for severe schizophrenia Assessing Biological Approaches Person doesn’t have a role in their recovery process other than taking medication and showing up for treatments Treatments are usually drug dependant and address biological issues ● Drug side effects that can be as bad/worse than original problem Environment and psychological processes not addressed Psychological Approaches Behavioral behaviors we can modify ● Classical conditioning responses to a neutral stimuli ● Operant conditioning shaping behaviors by rewarding desired behaviors and punishing undesired behaviors ● Modeling and observational learning modeling: new behaviors are learnt from imitation the behaviors modeled by others, observational learning: observes the rewards and punishments that another person receives Cognitive cognitive processes we can modify ● Not just rewards and punishments ● Causal attributions influence behavior ● Global assumptions broad beliefs of oneself, relationships and the world ● Identify and challenge negative thought processes and dysfunctional belief systems ○ Helps to learn effective problemsolving techniques to deal with the concrete problems ○ Designed to be short term ● Cognitivebehavioral therapy cognitive techniques combined with behavioral techniques ● Goal of cognitive therapy ○ assist clients in identifying irrational and maladaptive thoughts ○ teaching clients to challenge irrational or maladaptive thoughts, and to consider alternative ways of thinking ○ Encourage clients to face worst fears about a situation and recognize ways to cope Psychodynamic and Humanistic viewing people as a whole part ● All behaviors, thoughts, and emotions influenced by unconscious processes ● Includes psychoanalysis and several newer approaches ● Psychoanalysis: ○ Theory of personality and psychopathology ○ Method of investigating the mind Family Systems not just one person that needs to get treated for things to get better ● Effective in the treatment of children because they are more entwined in families EmotionFocused Approaches controlling how you respond and feel in situations Assessing Behavioral Approaches Set the standard for scientifically testing hypotheses about how normal and abnormal behaviors develop ● Effectiveness extensively and systematically supported in controlled studies Could account for some disorders ● Boots conditioned to be associated with sex study could be how fetishes are created Evidences are from laboratory studies Does not recognize free will in people’s behaviors Assessing Cognitive Approaches Proven useful in the treatment of disorders like: ● Sexual disorders ● Substance abuse disorders Difficult to prove that maladaptive cognitions precede and cause disorders ● Rather than being the symptoms or consequences of the disorders 9/2/16 Id, Ego, and Superego Human behavior is driven by libido (sexual drive) or aggressive drive, according to Freud Id drives and impulses seeks immediate release Ego gratifies wishes and needs in ways that remain within the rules of society Superego Storehouse of rules and regulations for the conduct of behavior that are learned from one’s parents and from society Interactions among the Id, Ego and Superego occur in the unconscious ● Unconscious completely out of our awareness ● Preconscious intermediate between the unconscious and the conscious Psychodynamic Therapies Helping clients recognize: ● Maladaptive coping strategies ● Sources of unconscious conflict (cognitive dissonance) Free Association freely talking about what’s going on, respond to words/questions as quickly as possible without thinking about it too much Working through repeatedly going over painful memories and difficult issues Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) ● Emerged from modern psychodynamic theories and is shortterm ● Shifted focus from the unconscious conflicts to the client’s pattern of relationships with important people in their lives ● Therapist is much more structured and directive ○ Offers interpretations much earlier ○ Focuses on how to change current relationships Assessing Psychodynamic Approaches Most comprehensive theories of human behavior Difficult or impossible to test its fundamental assumptions, scientifically Humanistic Approaches Humanistic theories based on the assumption that humans have an innate capacity for goodness and for living a full life Carl Rogers approach individuals naturally move toward personal growth, selfacceptance, and selfactualization ● Selfactualization fulfillment of one’s potential for love, creativity, and meaning, reaching maximum potential in all areas of our lives Humanistic therapy goal is to help people discover their potential through selfexploration Clientcentered therapy therapist communicates a genuineness in his or her role as a helper ● Acting as an authentic person not an authority figure ● Showing unconditional positive regard for the client Sociocultural Approaches Look beyond the individual or family to the larger society to understand people’s problems ● Risk factors for mental health problems ○ Socioeconomic disadvantage ○ Upheaval and disintegration of societies ○ Social norms and policies that stigmatize and marginalize certain groups CrossCultural Issues in Treatment Most psychotherapies are focused on the individual whereas most cultures are collective Psychotherapies value the expression of emotions whereas most cultures restrain them Clients are expected to initiate communication on expectations which can clash with cultural norms (people might feel uncomfortable sharing about their lives with a stranger) Class and issues of race pose difficulty in accessing help client and/or therapists might have different expectation or not know how to act Issues of age difference, gender and ethnicity hinder treatment Common Elements in Effective Treatments Have a positive relationship with the client Provide clients with an explanation or interpretation of why they are suffering Encourage clients to confront painful emotions and have techniques for helping them become less sensitive to these emotions
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