Experimental Psychology PSYC 266 - 05
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by emmy_rose4267 on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 266 - 05 at Truman State University taught by Ashley Ramsey in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Experimental Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Experimental Psychology 8/29 Validity Internal Validity: the degree to which a researcher can establish a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables Allows us to draw cause and effect conclusions Lab experiments and higher in internal validity because of their control of extraneous variables. External Validity: the degree to which research findings can be generalized to other settings and individuals. Nonexperimental studies have higher external validity Nonexperimental studies are conducted more with realworld settings with a more diverse sample of participants in the experiment. Case Study Case study: one person is studied (small sample size) and and observations are recorded by an outside observer Advantages: Source of hypotheses and theories Source of therapy techniques Allow study of rare phenomena Provides exceptions to accepted ideas, theories, etc Persuasive and motivational value They don’t have a good representation of sample Retrospective data: recollections of past events that are collected in the present ex) childhood memories Deviant case analysis: examine differences between deviant and normal individuals Field Study Field Study: nonexperimental studies conducted in the field where they don’t mess with antecedent conditions (independent variable levels) ex) naturalistic observation Reactivity: when people change the way they act when they know someone is watching them Participant Observer Study Participantobserver study: field observation in which researcher is part of the studied group Archival Study Archival study: descriptive method where researchers reexamine data that were collected for other purposes Data from previous time that you access now Qualitative vs Quantitative Qualitative: uses words to describe things or people ex) memories, feelings, selfreports, thoughts, etc. Quantitative: represents things with a numerical value ex) score on test, height, ability to run fast, etc Paradigm shift: change in attitudes like using more qualitative data Qualitative is invaluable in studying contextual phenomena ex) examine meaning of faith for patients facing surgery 8/31 Surveys Survey research: asks people to self report their attitudes, opinions, behaviors, etc. Surveys collect large amounts of data and can increase honesty by anonymity. When complemented with a lab experiment, you can find stronger data. It does not allow us to test cause and effect relationships because we do not manipulate variables and may they not be completely accurate. To construct surveys… 1) Identify research objectives 2) Decide on degree of response options 3) Decided how you will analyze the data Question types Closed questions: structured because they can be answered using a limited number of alternatives and have high response options. ex) How many pets do you have? The number or percent of responses can be reported Open ended questions: require participants to respond however they would like ex) Why did you choose your major? Can be analyzed using content analysis where responses are assigned to categories When constructing questions keep wording simple, avoid compound questions(2 irrelevant topics), and use exhaustive response choices. Response styles: people respond to questions without regard to their actual wording. Social desirability: response set is representing themselves in a better light Context effects: changes in question interpretation due to order in survey Buffer items: unrelated questions 9/2 Variables Independent variable: what we manipulate before the study begins Dependent variable: what we measure and expect to experience a change in Extraneous variables: other variables that might have an effect on dependant variable (might be a problem) Confounding variables: if they vary with the independent variable (it is a problem) Effect of experimental change (IV) on a behavior or mental process (DV) Groups Experimental groups: the one that receives what you’re testing Control group: something each group has in common and doesn’t vary Scales 1) Nominal scale: assigns items to 2 or more distinct categories that can be named using a shared feature but does not measure magnitude. 2) Ordinal scale: measures magnitude of dependent variable using ranks, but does not assign precise values 3) Interval scale: measures magnitude of DV using equal intervals between values with no absolute zero point. 4) Ratio scale: measures magnitude of DV using equal intervals between values and an absolute zero. Each scale adds… Different Categories + Order + Equal Spaces + Absolute Zero Point Examples) We want to study effect of sleep deprivation on memory span IV: amount of sleep that a participant receives prior to study 3 levels: no sleep, little sleep, adequate sleep Level of measurement: Ordinal DV: Number of items correct on Digit Span Test (DST) Level of Measurement: Ratio