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Week 2 - Nutrition Perspective and Digestive System

by: rgslc8

Week 2 - Nutrition Perspective and Digestive System Nutr 1020

Marketplace > University of Utah > Nutrition > Nutr 1020 > Week 2 Nutrition Perspective and Digestive System
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These notes contain information about nutrition labels and how to read them, the organization of the human body, and cell parts. There is also information on the digestion system, its components, ...
Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health
Anandh Babu Pon Velayutham
Class Notes
nutrition, nutrition science, digestion, absorption, Digestive System, digestive, cells, tissues, organs
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by rgslc8 on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutr 1020 at University of Utah taught by Anandh Babu Pon Velayutham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health in Nutrition at University of Utah.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Human Body – Nutrition Perspective --- August 30 MyPlate: Does not display oils/fats because they are commonly included in other foods. Daily Value (% DV)  Guide to the nutrients in one serving of food.  A nutrition standard more relevant to everyday life  Applies to both genders, 4 year olds to adults, and is based on consuming 2,000 calories per day.  Helps determine if a serving of food is high or low in a nutrient.  According to the FDA, 5% or less is low and 20% or more is high  Fat, cholesterol, sodium: DV represents a maximum level, not a goal on should try to achieve. o Goal for vitamins/minerals/etc. How to Calculate Daily Value  Diet containing 4.5 g fat, 85 mg sodium, 9 g dietary fiber.  Fat – less than 65 grams  % DV of fat = 4.5/65 = 0.07 = 7% o %DV – Fat = 7% Metric System  English system: Pounds (weight), cups (volume)  Metric system: Gram (weight), liter (volume) o 1 lbs = 454 grams o 1 kilogram = 2.2 lbs o 1 kilogram = 1000 grams o 1 gram = 1000 milligrams o 1 milligram = 1000 micrograms (mcg) o 1 quart = .94 liters Key Components of a Nutrition Facts Label 1. Serving Size 2. Amount of Calories 3. Limit: total fat, cholesterol, sodium 4. Get enough: Fiber, minerals, vitamins 5. Percent Daily Value 6. Footnote with Daily Values Changes to the Nutrient Facts Label Current Label: 20 years old, needs to be updated due to new scientific information. New Label: Enlarged text size for calories, serving size, includes added sugar grams, new footnote, actual amounts of nutrients are declared. Human Body from a Nutrition Perspective Organization of Human Body  Atoms  Molecules  Organelles  Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ System  Human Body Example  Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen  DNA, Protein, carbohydrates, lipids  Organelles  Cardiomyocytes (Heart cell – contraction and relaxation for beating)  Cardiac Tissue  Heart  Cardiovascular System (Blood, blood vessels, and heart) Organization of Human Body 1. Chemical Level 2. Cellular Level 3. Tissue Level 4. Organ Level 5. System Level 6. Organism Level  If one level is off, the whole organism level will be affected Cells – basic structural and functional component of life  Membranes and 15 organelles  Specialized cells perform particular function  Cells need: oxygen, water, macronutrients, and micronutrients  To ensure optimal use of nutrients, the body’s cells, tissues, and organs, and organ systems must work efficiently. Components of the Cell Plasma Membrane – Separates inside and outside of the cell  Regulates flow of substances  Controls cell to cell communication  Made up of lipids, protein (allows hormones to go in and out of cell), and carbohydrates (sends messages, identification markers of the cell) Cytoplasm  Fluid material and organelles (expect nucleus)  Small amount of energy produced – the sole source of energy production in RBC Mitochondria  Power plant of the cell o Converting food energy to form ATP that cells can use.  This is an aerobic process that uses oxygen, water, enzymes  All cells contain mitochondria except red blood cells  The size, shape, and quantity vary o A lot in heart to keep it beating 24/7 Nucleus  All cells contain a nucleus expect RBC  Contain genetic material o Chromosomes, DNA, Genes  DNA --- RNA --- Protein (gene expression) Endoplasmic Reticulum  Network of tubes outside nuclear membrane  Plays important role in protein synthesis Lysosomes (suicide bags)  Sacs that contain enzymes o Digest foreign materials o Digest damaged cell components Golgi Complex  Packing and transporting site for proteins o Fedex of the Cell Cell Metabolism  Metabolism: chemical processes involved in maintaining life. o Anabolism: puts different molecules together  Requires energy o Catabolism: takes molecules apart  Releases energy Digestive System --- September 1 Outline:  Digestive system  Complications/diseases associated with digestive system o Peptic Ulcers o Gluten Sensitivity o Heartburn o Diarrhea/constipation Digestive System Complex foods (carbs, proteins, fats) are converted into simpler nutrients (usable form of essential nutrient)  Complex carb  glucose  Proteins Amino Acids  Fats  Fatty Acids Nutrients become absorbed into the blood stream Nutrients distributed to tissues Responsible for:  Digestion – breaking complex foods into simple nutrients  Absorption of nutrients  Elimination of waste Gastrointestinal Tract (GI tract) 1. Mouth (enter)  2. Esophagus  3. Stomach  4. Small Intestine  5. Large Intestine (colon)  6. Rectum (exit) Open space inside the GI tract is called lumen Accessory organs: Liver, pancreas, gall bladder Mechanical and Chemical Processes in Digestive System  Mechanical o Chewing food o Peristaltic movement: muscle contractions mix and move food simultaneously through the GI tract  Wave like movement  Chemical o Breakdown of foods by acid and enzymes in GI tract  Enzymes: key part of digestion  Specific to one type of chemical process  Example: sucrase (enzyme) breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose  Activity is sensitive to: o Temperature o Acid and alkaline conditions  Work in acidic environments (stomach) but not in alkaline environments (small intestine) o Types of vitamins and minerals required to function Voluntary and involuntary controls in digestive system  Involuntary o Digestion and absorption processes o Control by nervous system and endocrine system o Peristaltic action of GI tract  Voluntary o What to eat o When to chew and how well to chew food o When to swallow o When to eliminate waste Components of the Digestive System Mouth  Chewing – break complex foods into smaller pieces  Senses and tastes the food  Signals the GI tract to prepare for the digestion of the food  Production of saliva (salivary glands) o Contains:  Mucus (makes it easy to swallow a mouthful of food)  Saliva Amylase (starch digesting enzyme)  Lipase (fat digesting enzymes) o 1-2 liters of saliva/every 24 hours Esophagus  Long tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach  No digestion/no absorption  Nerve fibers release signals to start peristalsis  Main purpose: transport food from the mouth to the stomach o Esophageal sphincter: to prevent stomach acid from rising Stomach  Can hold 1 liter of food  Food + gastric juices = chyme  Pyloric sphincter – controls the rate at which the chime is released into the small intestine  Very little absorption: o Some water and alcohol  How does the stomach protect itself from its own acids and enzymes? o Mucus: creates a gel-like layer to protect o Gastrin: enzymes that controls the release of acid o Hormone control Stomach Problems  Peptic Ulcer: occurs when stomach or small intestine is eroded by the acid secreted by the stomach cells o When mucus layer is disturbed and acids damage the stomach lining  Causes:  Infection: bacteria (Helicobacter Pylori)  Heavy use of medications (ibuprofen and aspirin) impair mucous production  Cigarette smoking  Treatment:  Antibiotic  Antacid medication  Acid – blocking medications (proton pump inhibitor)  Diet and ulcers:  Spicy and acidic foods do not cause ulcers but may irritate stomach lining  Heartburn/Acid Reflux o Movement of acid from the stomach to esophagus, loose esophageal sphincter o Esophagus easily eroded by acid  No protective mucous layer o “Heart burn” – inaccurate name. Nothing to do with heart o Most serious form : GERD (Gastro esophageal reflux disease ) o Increased risk with pregnancy and obesity. o Triggers: stress, lack of sleep, certain foods (spicy, acidic, or fatty) Small Intestine  Where most digestion and absorption occurs  1 inch in diameter, about 10 feet long  3 parts o Duodenum o Jejunum o Ileum  Lining of small intestine: mucosa – folded – finger like projections called villi o Villi are constantly moving to trap food and enhance absorption  Made up of absorptive cells (enterocytes) Small Intestine Problems  Celiac Disease and Gluten Sensitivity o Chronic disease, no medication o Affects 1% US population o Genetic predisposition and dietary exposure o Gluten  Type of protein present in certain grains  Wheat, rye, barley o In Celiac Disease  Incomplete digestion of gluten protein  Peptide from gluten induces irritation  Absorption of nutrients impaired by flattening of the villi  Must abide by a gluten free diet  Overtime:  Bone loss (nutrients are not absorbed), infertility, anemia, weight loss, fatigue Large Intestine  No digestion. Absorbs: water, some vitamins, some fatty acids, and minerals Na, K  Major role: excretion  No digestive enzymes  Mucous producing cells  Large population of bacteria (500 different species) o Play role in maintenance of a healthy colon  Reduced activity of disease causing bacteria o Probiotics: “good bacteria” o Prebiotics: non-digestible carbs act as food for probiotics o Synbiotic: both probiotics and prebiotics Rectum  No digestion/ absorption  Sole purpose: excretion Rectum Problems  Diarrhea o Increased fluidity, frequency, or amount of bowel movements comparted to a person’s usual pattern.  Reason:  Infections in the intestine (bacterial and viral)  Consumption of substances that are not readily absorbed  Recovery:  Plenty of water to prevent diarrhea  Probiotics  Constipation o Slow movement of fecal matter o Difficulty of infrequent evacuation of the bowels  Reason:  Dehydration  Lack of fiber  Certain medications  More fiber and more water can help  Laxatives


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