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by: Emma Huff

Intro_to_Philosophy_Notes_8_29_16___9_2_16.pdf PHL 301

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > PHL 301 > Intro_to_Philosophy_Notes_8_29_16___9_2_16 pdf
Emma Huff
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About this Document

These are the in-class notes for the week of 8/29/16 - 9/2/16. Don't forget about the quiz due on Wednesday! (:
Introduction to Philosophy
Daniel Bonevac
Class Notes
introductory, philosophy
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Huff on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHL 301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Daniel Bonevac in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Intro to Philosophy Notes 8/29/16 - 9/2/16 Class Notes 8/29/16: - Confucius lived in China from (551-479) - Li: The rules of propriety. - Ren: Virtue - Yi: Righteousness; doing the right things for the right reasons - All of these are independent. None of them reduce down to each other as in Western philosophy. - Zhong: altruism; likening-to-oneself - Dao: the right way to live - Confucius intends his theory to be independent of any theory of human nature. Instead, he speaks about what we can affect and what qualities arise form nurture, not nature. - Later, his followers filled in this gap. - Mencius: argues that people are naturally “good”; He claims that virtue is innate and based on feelings. He uses the well example: if you see a child fall into a well, you immediately rush to help him. He also claims that commiseration (Ren), shame and dislike (Yi), modesty and complaisance (Li), and approval and disapproval (knowledge) are essential to men. He encourages people to seek the cause of their failures in themselves and to preserve their child heart. He believes that virtue is easy to achieve. - Xunzi (310-212): argues that people are naturally “evil”. He claims that humans must work hard to be good. He believes that self-interest, desire for personal gain, envy, and dislike are innate, while self-denial, yielding to others, faith, and propriety are lacking. He claims that human nature must be submitted to teachers and laws. We have the capacity to be virtuous, but it requires training, education, self-control, and practice. - Wang Chung: argues that some people are born “good” and some are born “evil” - Zhu Xi: argues that we have both “good” and “evil” inside us - % Components of Ren: 1. Seriousness 2. Generosity 3. Sincerity 4. Diligence 5. Kindness - Different virtues pertain to different relationships. Class Notes 8/31/16: - The Teachings of Confucius Cont. - self > family > others - TheAnalects begin in a simple way- “Isn’t it pleasant to learn and to apply what you’ve learned?” - The superior person attends to the root of things- from the root grows the Way (Dao) - Filial piety and fraternal submission are the root of benevolence - Virtues Toward Others - the 5 Virtues of Ren: kindness, diligence, seriousness, sincerity, generosity - also Zhong (reciprocity), which is the Silver Rule: Don’t treat others the way you wouldn’t want to be treated. - filial piety (xiao): obedience, reverence, and service to one’s parents and elders - fraternal submission: service and trustworthiness toward equals - You learn how to treat others by learning how to interact with your family. - It is important that the family be structured correctly in order for correct conceptions of virtues to develop. - First Principles Toward Self: faithfulness and sincerity - to be insincere with yourself means that you are lying to yourself; you make promises and commitments you cannot keep and you do not know what you want - to be the best you, you must be sincere with yourself - Do not have friends who are not equal to you because they will bring you down. - Surround yourself with people who make you a better person. - Knowledge > Virtues of Thought > Virtues of Feeling > Virtues ofAction - Without knowledge, virtues change into their opposites. - Virtues of Thought: sincerity and humility; we exhibit these to ourselves; sincerity to self > self-knowledge > avoiding self-deception - Virtues of Feeling: superior person not only knows, but loves the Way; you must want to do what is right - What Should I Do? (Li) - Li (Propriety): observing traditional social rules - propriety > habits > virtues of feeling and action - requires subduing oneself - very tied in with the culture one is in - Reciprocity (Zhong) is unchanging and not tied to culture. - How Do I Decide? (Yi) - the superior person takes righteousness to be essential - acting upon the right kind of reasons - Yi is the desire to do what is right just because it is right - what is right is intrinsically valuable Class Notes 9/2/16: - The superior person > Confucius - “The unexamined life is not worth living” > Socrates - rational activity >Aristotle - Aristotle (384-322 BCE) - most medieval philosophy stems from his teachings - Socrates taught Plato who taughtAristotle who taughtAlexander the Great - Instrumental Goods: desired for the sake of something else - Intrinsic Goods: desired for their own sake - Happiness (eudaimonia): living well; flourishing - Happiness is always desired for its own sake. - What is it to live well? - a good knife cuts well - a good eye sees well - therefore, a good person fulfills his or her function well - Our function is rational activity. - Intellectual virtue: excellence in rationality - Moral virtue: excellence in activity - Intellectual virtue can be taught, but moral virtue cannot be. - Weakness of Will (akrasia): giving into temptation; knowing better and doing worse - Becoming a good person means developing good habits.


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