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Health Psychology 333

by: Renee Kisic

Health Psychology 333 333

Marketplace > Coastal Carolina University > Psychology > 333 > Health Psychology 333
Renee Kisic
GPA 3.7

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About this Document

These notes are from week 2
Health Psychology
Dr. Bernard Albiniak
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renee Kisic on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 333 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Dr. Bernard Albiniak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychology at Coastal Carolina University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Tuesday, August 30, 2016 AGE AGEs: advanced glycation end products; this is when sugar molecules bind irreversibly to protein or fat molecules - this is damaging and occurs in all tissues - causes glycation - example of glycation: liver spots on skin • normal blood sugar level= 70-100 mg/dl • post prandial spike: spike in blood sugar after eating (this is normal) • if blood sugar stays at 135 mg, it is considered diabetic (type ll) • if blood sugar stays at 110 mg, it is considered pre diabetic (type ll) • insulin transports sugar into each cell - the pancreas has sensors to monitor blood sugar level - if the blood sugar is too high and it has already pumped some out, it starts pumping out more insulin - insulin resistance is a prelude to diabetes • usually type ll diabetes is a result of lifestyle, not genetics - genes don’t change in 30 years, so it is not a result of evolution - in 1980 the government created a food pyramid with carbs at the bottom as the most important food group to eat; obesity began to rise rapidly; 1980-2016 the obesity rate went from 15% of people being obese to 41% of women and 37% of men being obese • why don’t doctors treat inflammation itself before it turns into a chronic disease? - medicine is a clinical practice; treats diseases, not prevention 1 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Causes of Inflammation at a Cellular Level • sugar consumption • gum health • inadequate sleep Food Industry’s Role • add sugar to food that everybody eats to make people want it more • people eat more sugar than they are aware of • however, it is our choice to buy the food with added sugars • ex: white bread is extremely processed and is just sugar: all of the nutrients have been taken out of it leaving it with only starch; “healthy” bread should not be soft to the touch 2 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Lifespan • the lifespan of the average American has gone up from the 1900s to now from 51-78 • health span: span of health until it goes bad; ends when there is a chronic disease; average is 62 • life expectancies in other countries from longest to shortest: - Japan (85 years) - Switzerland (84 years) - Singapore - Australia - Spain - Iceland - Italy - France - USA (# 43 out of 183 countries) 3 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 The Health of the Mouth Generally Represents Health of Entire Body gingivitis: inflammation of gums at the base of the tooth; top of the gum • - 80% of people have it - 15% of people have periodontitis: advanced case of gingivitis, inflammation affects whole gum, teeth move - solution is to have a procedure to get the gums cleaned out - if not taken care of, it can destroy the bone in the jaw - germs that enter the gums go into blood stream and heart - it can be systemic: when something affects one part of the body and spreads, affecting the whole body - cytokines: cells that go everywhere because of an inflammatory response; causes sickness behavior ex: TNF-alpha inflammatory (not supposed to be present) - TNF is secreted when there is an infection, to kill germs ex: IL-10 helps reduce inflammation - can cross blood brain barrier * inflammation is essential to life * chronic inflammation is bad; causes systemic cytokines 4 Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Over nutrition • What happens to humans/animals if over nutrition (excess calorie intake) occurs? - basal metabolic rate: how many calories you burn doing nothing (what the body needs to stay alive)= 1400 calories - average American eats 2800-3500 calories - because of evolution, our bodies store energy, rather than get rid of excess energy - macronutrient: protein and fat, our bodies need it • process of eating sugar: 1. pancreas is altered of food: responds with insulin release (only way glucose can get into cells) *type 1 diabetes can’t make insulin - because so much sugar was eaten, pancreas pumps out lots of insulin; glucose and insulin levels are high 2. 3 things can be done with sugar molecules: - oxidize: sugar is burned/ used right away - glycogen: stored form of glucose, live converts glucose to glycogen because it senses too much glucose and saves it for later; stored in liver and skeletal muscle (short term storage) - fat: excess carbs are stored as fat molecules in gut 5 Thursday, Sept. 1, 2016 Fat Cells • Fat Chance by Robert Lustig - MD (medical doctor) *DO: doctors who use more alternative methods - pediatric endocrinologist (hormones and glands) • doctors are under the control of: - pharmaceutical companies - insurance companies - government • adipose tissue: fat tissue • adipocytes: fat cells fat cells stage 1: cells are depending on one artery for blood supply - contains M2 macrophages; not activated because there is no debris to pick up/eat fat cells stage 2: hypertrophy: fat cells get bigger, increase in macrophages - contains M2 macrophages and M1 macrophages: pick up/eat debris fat cells stage 3: apoptosis: programmed cell death (if cell gets too stressed out) to protect healthy cells; sends out warning signals, MCF-1 attracts macrophages - contains M1 macrophages to clean up dead or dying cells 1 Thursday, Sept. 1, 2016 Sugar Metabolism • fructose - comes from nature - cheap to make • HFCS: sugar from corn • excess sugar: - liver handles it (largest organ in visceral cavity) - handles glucose metabolism - sends sugar into bloodstream for energy ATP - mitochondria makes ATP; packages glucose molecules as glycogen (100g) - stored in skeletal muscles (600g) lasting approximately 1.5 days - carbs (glucose) become fat in the liver; plastic fat: saturated fat (fatty acids) - triglyceride: backbone with 3 fatty acids attached to it - packed in VLDL(very low density) molecule—>turns into LDL after it dumps its load into the cell - has to be taken apart to go into a fat cell - starts secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines(go everywhere) - this can cause heart disease 2 Thursday, Sept. 1, 2016 Peristalsis: muscular movement of food ex: sugar oral cavity(sugar starts being digested by amylase)—> esophagus(smooth muscle) (longitudinal and circular muscles)—> sphincter(prevents stomach contents from coming up out of stomach)—> stomach—> sphincter—> small intestine (sugar is now glucose)(glucose goes through intestinal wall into blood stream)—> pancreas( secretes digestive juices in stomach, secretes insulin-beta cells) Diabetes • Type :l inheritable, can’t make insulin • Type l:linsulin resistant; insulin doesn’t work well, cells become resistant to insulin (primarily due to lifestyle) • Type ll:lbrain cells become resistant to insulin (leads to dementia); cells that control cognition have been starved of glucose *diabetes is usually not diagnosed until approximately 28 years of age 3


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