World Geo North America
World Geo North America GR1123
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by alb1081 on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Shatrughan Singh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see World Geography in Geoscience at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
II. The North American Realm A. Basic Facts 1. United States and Canada a. Best trade relationship between countries b. Highly urbanized c. Most mobile population B. Population 1. U. S. has higher population 2. Most of the Canadian population lives within 200 miles of the U. S. border 3. 80% of the population in the North American realm lives in cities 4. Population clusters a. Both have a high degree of cultural pluralism, or cultural diversity C. Physical Regions 1. Physiographic Regions a. High relief regions 1. Rocky, Appalachian, and Pacific Mountains 2. Sierra Nevada b. Lowland regions 1. Great Plains, Interior Lowlands, Coastal Plains c. Climate 1. C and D are good for farming 2. Rain shadow effect – western mountains block moisture to Great Plains a. One side of the mountain (windward) gets precipitation, the other side (leeward) gets dry, descending air b. Ex. Western/Eastern Oregon/Washington 3. Heavy rain in the east; light in the west d. Great Drainage Systems 1. Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River drain into the North Atlantic a. Lake Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario 2. Mississippi-Missouri River system drains into a delta on the Gulf of Mexico 3. Great Basin – surrounded by mountains a. Precipitation evaporates or goes rolls into lakes i. Great Salt Lake D. Indigenous Population 1. Land bridge from eastern Russia to North America 2. Disease and settlers killed most of the natives 3. Named Indians because the Europeans thought they were in India 4. U. S. – Native Americans a. Choctaw - Mississippi 5. Canada – First Nations a. Inuit – Upper Canada b. Metis – Canadian natives and European mix E. European Influence 1. Colonization was predominately France and England 2. American Revolution and opening of the West 3. Language – near universality of English a. Facilitates mobility 4. Religion – mostly Christian a. Regional denomination and tolerance 5. Most of the population is highly educated and economically stable compared to the rest of the world F. Federal Map 1. All states are divided by straight lines unless separated by rivers or other natural landforms a. Straight lines are easier to manage G. Distribution of Natural Resources 1. Uneven distribution across North American Realm 2. Water – relatively well-supplied a. Concerns for future – overuse of ground water for agriculture 3. Mineral reserves in 3 zones a. Fossil fuels – oil, natural gas, and coal b. U. S. is the largest consumer of fossil fuels H. Urbanization and Spatial Economy 1. Shifting Spatial Economy a. Primary sector – producing raw material 1. In decline due to mechanization b. Secondary sector – finishing product 1. Growth and decline c. Tertiary sector – selling/buying 1. Expanding 2. Information economy a. CBD – Central Business District b. Silicon valley in California c. Information-based economic activity d. Tertiary and Quaternary sectors 1. Quaternary includes tech help, IT 3. Polycentric Cities a. CBD is at center b. Suburbs, etc. c. Gentrification – changing land use 1. Downtowns growing into high rises 2. Raises property values and taxes 3. Displaces lower income with few, more affluent ones 4. Great Recession a. 2008 financial crisis b. Burst of housing bubble and problem of negative home equity for mortgages I. The Migration Process 1. International migration a. Migration decision depends on perception, information, and distance b. Push and pull factors motivate or attract 1. Better opportunities pull, lack of opportunity pushes c. North America – land of opportunity J. Making of a Multicultural Realm 1. Growing pluralism: a. Transnationalism – people attached to multiple cultures/nations b. Melting pot – blending of society to become one durable society c. Mosaic culture – heterogeneous complex of separate, distinct groups 2. Multiculturalism produces both a melting pot and a mosaic culture 3. Argument of immigration a. Brings benefits 1. Fuels economic growth 2. Not just unskilled, also skilled and educated 3. Immigration brings youth to aging native population b. Limit immigration 1. High level is unsustainable 2. Demand for social services stains state budgets 3. Immigrants displace working-class Americans because they accept lower wages 4. Security issue K. Regionalism in Canada 1. 13 provinces 2. French Quebec and Ontario heavily populated 3. Capital is Ottawa a. Head of State is Queen Elizabeth II 4. Devolution – seeking autonomy (independent state) a. French-speaking Canada (Quebec) wants to be independent 5. Nunavut – province for Inuits and First Nations 6. Cree and Hydroelectric Project at James Bay L. Regionalism in United States 1. No issue of autonomy 2. Native Americans have little land and political power 3. Population a. Spanish dominant in Southwest 1. TX, CA, NM, NV, AZ b. African American dominant in Southeast 1. SEC states c. Asians dominant California and New York regions M. North American Regions 1. North American Core a. Rectangle that includes Boston, DC, St. Louis, and Milwaukee b. American Manufacturing Belt c. Larger cities and financial markets 2. Maritime Northeast a. North border of Massachusetts to New Foundland b. Economy centered around water 3. French Canada a. French-speaking Acadians in New Brunswick 1. Against succession b. Southern Quebec – major French-speaking population 1. Wants succession 4. Southeast a. Sunbelt Migration b. Essentially covers SEC states c. Gap between rich and poor d. New South – research; Old South – farming and plantations 5. Southwest a. East Texas to Southern California b. Economy – Oil and Technopoles (high tech industrial complexes) c. NAFTA – U. S., Canada, and Mexico 6. Pacific Hinge a. Mostly California b. California – most populous state 7. Western Frontier a. Sierra Nevada and Cascades to the Rockies b. Las Vegas – fast growing metropolitan area 8. Continental Interior a. Agriculture – Breadbasket b. Region not so affected by recession 9. Northern Frontier a. Canada and Alaska b. Economic bounty – tar sands (all mixed with sand) c. Boreal forests – environmental importance, being destroyed by logging
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