Week 3- lecture notes
Week 3- lecture notes Hist 1010 - 003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Cook on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Daniel F. Giblin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
CHAPTER 4 INDUS RIVER VALLEY - Flourished from 2600-1900 BCE. - Stretches from Tar Desert to modern Pakistan. - Floods 2x a year. Melting snow from the mountains feed the floods. Summer is monsoon season. - Hakra River used to flow parallel to Indus River. - Settlement was northeast to Deli, India and south to the Indus where they reach the Arabian Sea. Culture was best known for Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. - The underground water table is rising making it hard to excavate. - Streets laid out in a rectangular grid, sewage, suggested strong central planning, and underground sewage systems. There is no reason found as of yet for why there was a rise in reproduction or technological advances in the 2000s BCE. MOHENJO-DARO: Dominates floodplains. The great bath. HARAPPA: Located between farmland and herding land. Cultivated materials including iron ore and stones. 1500 BCE created chariot. 2 wheels and 2 spokes. Chariots moved northwest. They spread, did not change. - Scholars believed that it was standard diffusion that created the smaller cities based off larger civilizations. - Did not have many “pretty metal things” but did have broad access to many metals to make tools unlike the Egyptians who only used it for decoration. - Indecipherable writing techniques (on stones) - We know little about the social and economic actions of the Indus Valley. - Three things are thought to have caused the end of the Indus Valley civilization: 1) People of east Asia came down upon them very forcefully. 2) Suffered system failure (political, economic, and social). 3) Gradual ecological changes, river dried up, salinization causing a difficulty for agriculture, or an earthquake sending the river awry. CHARIOTS CONTINUATION 2600 BCE the four wheeled chariot was introduced as command platforms evolved from the horse drawn cart pastorals have horses and settlers have the materials and the knowledge to make the chariots 2100 BCE in southern Ural Mt the two wheeled chariot was introduced chariots did not originate in a particular state but developed in the steppe and diffused into the states. EGYPT - Hyksos introduced the composite bow and the use of a bow from a chariot. - New kingdom began expanding the military. - 1274 Battle of Kadesh: Ramses won almost by himself, there were almost 7,000 total chariots in the fight - Did not have many materials, had to look north and east for bronze. - Wood came from Caucasus Mt. CHINA - Shang (destroyed by Zhou whose chariots were just as common but less decorative, more utilitarian): aristocratic way of fighting. Not terribly violent or lethal. Few found and only found in certain areas. - No solid wheels. - Lightweight. - Used for casual things, not just war. GREEKS/AGEAN SEA MINOANS (Cretan): socially complex interactions. o Sophisticated art; frescoes and scenes on vases. o 2000 BCE Crete was the first home to advanced technology. MYCENEANS: Greek speakers migrated, 1600 BCE began to expand and make trade connections. o Fortified to protect. o Palace was decorated with frescoes of war, hunts, and daily life. Linear B; the pictorial signs used to represent words. Government exercised economic control. Seafaring people. Stayed close to the shore because of need for water and food. Boats were also not very robust. Merchants established trade routes which in turn was taken over by the Greeks. Only the elite classes had metal goods. *Assyrians and Persians were both empires. ASSYRIANS Have militaries, a lot of people, diversification (multiethnic), expansionists, new emergence in 1000 BCE, New-Assyrian Empire, farmers, they were good at defense. Led campaigns from Ziro Mt. to Nile River Valley. Controlled international commerce. The king was literally and symbolically the center. Everyone was his servant. He was “chosen” by the gods as an earthly representative. War leader, religious leader, made no decisions without consulting the gods through divination. Large landowners gave land to peasants. Professionals of the military. Bowman and Calvary, also spearman and chariots fitting four men. Iron weapons. Innovation: men riding on the backs of horses. Battering rams, warfare was siege rather than fighting on foot. Used propaganda as a fear tactic. The elite class was bound to the monarchs by fear. We know little of the lives of peasants. Vast majority were farmers and traders on the local level. Scholars built many libraries and learned things from their Mesopotamian successors. PERSIAN EMPIRE Links western Asia with southern and central Asia. Largest empire that the world has seen yet. Greeks wrote of the Persians (where we get most of the information we have) but they did not like the Persians so it could have been from a poor view. The northwest was mostly watered and very populated. Irrigation got people to move down from the Mt. to the plains. Built underground systems so that the water would not evaporate in the arid climates. Provided many materials but not much agricultural surplus, kept the population down. MEDES – Cyrus the Great – united the various Persian areas and formed bonds with the Greeks through marriage. Priests did ritual sacrifices, peasants consisted of farmers and Shepard’s, and a vast amount of warriors. Cyrus conquered city states, Mesopotamia, and the Babylonian society. Camasses was Cyrus’ son and took over after her father died. Dies in 522 BCE. Darius I, 522-486 BCE – distantly related to the throne. Persia controlled all but Yangtze and Yellow river valley cities. Danube River first touched by the outskirts of Persia. Satrapies (governor) in charge of the almost 20 provinces. Usually related to royal family by marriage. The local court was a mini version of the central court. They lived in the province they represented which was good because they were well trusted by the commoners but bad because they had trouble easily communicating to the central court. Darius I controlled how much metal the Satrapies had to send in annually. Standing armies helped control the people inside and strike fear to those who wanted to come inside. Sousa (Mesopotamia) was the administrative and geographic center. Pallas of Persepolis: o Persian kings made elaborate palaces to show wealth. o Multiethnic empire. o Center of power depicted people side to side with burdens on their shoulders with no strain, showing they were entirely comfortable. o Darius I showed that he was fair but he is still over everyone “someone is everyone but Darius is above everyone” o Put in power by gods. o Zoroastrain- first single deity religion- Darius I practiced; only in certain Iranian and Indian areas today. ZHOU Overthrew the Shang and took over many elements of culture. Longest family dynasty in the history of China. WEN initiated a rebellion WU was the first ruler of the new dynasty. - Said to be the “son of heaven” - God granted authority to a ruler as long as that ruler has his citizens in mind. - MANDATE OF HEAVEN validated the idea of monarchy by connecting religion and ruling. - Lasthd as tth ruling sense for 3000 years. 11 and 8 BCE Zhou faded. Spring and autumn period: 770-476 BCE. Warring state period: 475-221 BCE. Warfare was consistent throughout this time. VOCABULARY TERMS ANNALS: historical records arranged year by year CASTE: group of many social classes CLAN: social group composed of many households, claiming descent from a common ancestor. EMPIRE: group of states or ethnic groups under a single power GENEALOGY: history or descent of a person or a family from a distant anscestor IDEOLOGY: dominant set of ideas spread across a culture IRON: malleable metal found almost everywhere in the world MANDATE OF HEAVEN: see Zhou^ PROPHETS: freelance religious men of power VEDAS: Sanskrit for wisdom or knowledge ZOROASTRIANIASM: religion of the western empire.
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