19th Century European Art History Week 1 Notes
19th Century European Art History Week 1 Notes ARTH 430
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Goebel on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 430 at Montana State University taught by Dr. Todd Larkin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see 19th Century Art History in ARTH - Art History at Montana State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Art History 430: 19 th Century Art History Tia Goebel August 31, 2016 The French Revolution and Its Legacy I. The Ancien Regime - Vigee Le Brun, Marie-Antoinette in State Dress, 1778 - Callet, Louis XVI in Robes of State, 1779 wore these outfits as they travelled to mass, peasants would line the streets waiting to see them (Pre-revolution and the King is the absolute authority) Paintings like this would have been seen throughout his territory, Louis XVI was strange in his rule that he believed in foreign policy morality, King was the body-politic: metaphor for the actually country, every part of his life is kept health to keep the country healthy FULL OF SYMBOLISM American (French writings (during the Enlightenment?) inspired the Revolutionary War, but the…) vs. French Revolution occurred afterward Long live the Republic vs. Long live the King! May 5, 1789 – Estates- General 3 Estates (clergy, nobility, commons) Problems arise: French helped in the Revolutionary War, but the US couldn’t pay France back, and the commoners are the only ones paying taxes As a result, King calls the Estates-General to vote for an increase in taxation. Clergy and nobility, who were tax exempt, kept outvoting the commoners to avoid taxes. Anon, Opening of the Estates-General at Versailles, 1789, engraving Commoners demand that the estates vote by head instead of order led to the potential for a constitutional monarchy and the estates-general became the National Assembly. National Assembly - June 20, 1789 – Tennis Court Oath @ Versailles, assembly wants a constitution, and the birth of a National Assembly Art History 430: 19 thCentury Art History Tia Goebel Oath of the Tennis Court, 1791, pen and wash on paper David’s sketch for a 20’ x 30’ painting (unfinished, can view fragments of the work – drew in the nude, anatomically) We see… Bailly, Mayor of Paris, and Robespierre (one of the most radical members of the revolution and votes to send the King/Queen to the guillotine), and we see embracing (united) religious groups represented in the front (3), many other folks in the painting were executed II. Jacque-Louis David as a History Painter How did David get to the level seen in his political paintings? Flashback: Oath of the Horatii, Salon of 1785 3 sons of Horatius (Rome) vs. 3 sons of Curatius (Alba) Reveals a great deal about David’s expertise as a painter Neoclassicism This is really about morality: the state trumps all personal loyalty. King wanted a painting about nobility. What happens: surviving Horatii brother kills his sister, who was betrothed to a Curatius brother that died and was depressed. Women: passive, tend children, emotional How did the public view it? Public loved it because the public believed that David would depict what was the best interest for the public. Next… David, Brutus, Salon of 1789 Early history of the Roman republic Brutus & Collatimus established the first Roman Republic Brutus’s sons: Titus & Tiberius, these sons were trying to defy the state, so Brutus had them killed, same lesson as before Art History 430: 19 thCentury Art History Tia Goebel III. The Revolution, 1789-95 Lettre de cache – for imprisonment without due process of the law (you’d go to the Bastille) July 14, 1789: Fall of the Bastille Hubert Robert, The Demolition of the Bastille, 1789 Guillotine – (named after Joseph Guillotine, an anatomist), die so quickly that the prisoner doesn’t even notice Anonymous, Execution of Louis XVI, 1793, engraving (thought to be accurate) Why kill the king? Accused of treason, but he was helping his fellow monarchs, and he conspired to have others invade France…also, by decapitating the body-politic, the republic must have a new face. 20,000 people were eventually sent to the guillotine to protect the continuation of the republic. January 21, 1793: Execution of Louis XVI July 13, 1793: Jean-Paul Marat, stabbed by Charlotte Corday Marat, a journalist, was responsible for sending many to the guillotine for the sake of the revolution, and greatly honored by David. Jacobins: Girondists vs. Montaguards Jacobins are radical republicans Girondists were constitutional monarchists, not as extreme. October 16, 1793: Execution of Marie-Antoinette, “the Bad Mother” In great contrast to the royal portraiture: David, Marie-Antoinette being Carted to the Scaffold, 1793 Marie-Antoinette, accused of incest, ‘ruled by unlawful passion’ Even though she gave an excellent defense in court, the Committee of Public Safety charged her to die (escorted all women from the room) What France most feared during the Revolution came to be in the form of Napoleon Bonaparte. th Art History 430: 19 Century Art History Tia Goebel Ingres, Napoleon as First Consul, 1799 Napoleon was a successful general that was winning in Italy. Plead the case that he went from foot soldier to the leader of an entire country – worked his way up. King Revolution Consul (Dictator) More authority than a president September 7, 2016 The French Revolution and Its Legacy I. The Ancien Regime
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