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Module 1 Notes- Intro. to Psychology

by: Maria Dasilva

Module 1 Notes- Intro. to Psychology PSYC100

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Maria Dasilva
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About this Document

These notes are on module (chapter) 1 of the OpenPsyc online textbook.
Introduction to Psychology
Ryan Curtis
Class Notes
Intro to Psychology




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Dasilva on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC100 at University of Maryland taught by Ryan Curtis in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Maryland.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Textbook  Notes:  Week  1  & PSYC100/Section  0106     Dr,  Ryan  Curtis   Module/ Chapter 1: Success in Intro to Psychology A. What is Psychology?   Psychology is the scientific study of Affect (feelings), Behavior, and Cognition (mental processes such as thoughts). Website: Careers in Psychology- APA a. first appeared in the 1870s b. Psychology is the study intersection of two critical relationships: one between brain function and behavior, and another between the environment and behavior. 2. What do Psychologists Do? a. As scientists, psychologists follow scientific methods, using careful observation, experimentation and analysis b. They assess behavioral and mental function and well-being, study how human beings relate to each other and also to machines, and work to improve these relationships c. they work independently but also team up with other professionals d. Psychologists traditionally study both normal and abnormal functioning and treat individuals with mental and emotional problems. e. They also concentrate on behaviors that affect the mental and emotional health and mental functioning of healthy human beings; solving problems and promoting healthy human development f. Psychologists contribute solutions to problems through careful collection of data, analysis of data and development of intervention strategies 3. Sub-Fields in Psychology a. In each of the subfields, there are psychologists who work primarily as researchers, others who work primarily as practitioners and many who do both (scientist–practitioners); also teach in academic institutions b. Clinical psychologists assess and treat mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. c.Cognitive and perceptual psychologists study human perception, thinking and memory. d. Community psychologists work to strengthen the abilities of communities, settings, organizations and broader social systems to meet people’s needs e. Counseling psychologists help people recognize their strengths and resources to cope with everyday problems and serious adversity f. Developmental psychologists study the psychological development of the human being that takes place throughout life. g. Educational psychologists concentrate on how effective teaching and learning take place. h. Engineering psychologists conduct research on how people work best with machines. i. Environmental psychologists study the dynamics of person–environment interactions. j. Evolutionary psychologists study how evolutionary principles such as mutation, adaptation and selective fitness influence human thought, feeling and behavior. k. Experimental psychologists are interested in a wide range of psychological phenomena, including cognitive processes, comparative psychology (cross-species comparisons), and learning and conditioning. l. Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to legal issues. m. Health psychologists specialize in how biological, psychological and social factors affect health and illness Textbook  Notes:  Week  1  & PSYC100/Section  0106     Dr,  Ryan  Curtis   n. Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace in the interest of improving productivity, health and the quality of work life. o. Neuropsychologists (and behavioral neuropsychologists) explore the relationships between brain systems and behavior p. Quantitative and measurement psychologists focus on methods and techniques for designing experiments and analyzing psychological data. q.Rehabilitation psychologists work with stroke and accident victims, people with mental retardation and those with developmental disabilities caused by such conditions as cerebral palsy, epilepsy and autism. r. School psychologists are engaged in the delivery of comprehensive psychological services to children, adolescents and families in schools and other applied settings s. Social psychologists study how a person’s mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people t. Sport psychologists help athletes refine their focus on competition goals, become more motivated, and learn to deal with the anxiety and fear of failure that often accompany competition. B. Mindset Matters   Main Idea in Dwecks article: the key idea is that hard work and well-placed effort makes you more intelligent - and knowing that can improve your grade! Article : Student's View of Intelligence Can Help Grades 1. if you teach students that their intelligence can grow and increase, they do better in school. a. "All children develop a belief about their own intelligence", according to research psychologist Carol Dweck from Stanford University b. "Some students start thinking of their intelligence as something fixed, as carved in stone," - Dweck calls this a "fixed" mindset of intelligence c. "Other children think intelligence is something you can develop your whole life," she says. "You can learn. You can stretch. You can keep mastering new things."- Dweck calls this the "growth" mindset of intelligence 2.Dweck wondered whether a child's belief about intelligence has anything to do with academic success a. so she assessed several hundred students going into the seventh grade b. determined which students believed their intel unchangeable and which believed it could grow c then tracked math grades over the next two years d. those with the growth mindset had steadily increasing math grades; those that had the "fixed" mindset had decreasing math grades 3. Led Dweck and her colleague to wonder if they taught the students how to have a growth mindset, would that benefit their grades ? a. about 100 7th graders all doing poorly in math were randomly assigned to workshops on good study skills: ( one that taught about the brain ) b. Basically, the students were given a mini-neuroscience course on how the brain works. By the end of the semester, the group of kids who had been taught that the brain can grow smarter, had significantly better math grades than the other group. Textbook  Notes:  Week  1  & PSYC100/Section  0106     Dr,  Ryan  Curtis   4. "When they studied, they thought about those neurons forming new connections," Dweck says. "When they worked hard in school, they actually visualized how their brain was growing a. Dweck says this new mindset changed the kids' attitude toward learning and their willingness to put forth effort. b. Teaching children that they're in charge of their own intellectual growth motivates a child to work hard- (Duke Univ Psychologist Steven Asher) C. Learning Styles   Main Idea: There is the idea that different people learn different ways and that in order for you to be successful information needs to be presented in a way that matches your style. OpenPsyc: Do Learning Styles Limit Learning? 1. there is no scientific studies showing that people with different preferences perform better on an exam when the information was presented in one way or the other 2. Despite the fact that some people may have stronger verbal skills while others have stronger visual skills, measurement of their actual abilities were unrelated to their reported preferences 3. So far the research suggests that if learning styles are limiting learning at all is it because we believe we are not capable of learning in certain ways. D. Studying Smart §   Test success is a matter of effectiveness not effort. §   use research based strategies to study smart; do not rely on old study strategies OpenPsyc: The Truth About Learning have been selected for the chance to win $100,000 during the halftime break of a home basketball game that takes place in five weeks. You will get one shot from half court Plan? :: - Spend 30 minutes each day taking practice shots, starting out closer to the hoop and gradually making your way to half court. OR -Wait until the night before the game, stay up all night shooting from half court and drink a bucket of coffee to wake yourself up. a The same thing applies to academics; do not cram before the big 'game' day. b. You are training your brain to hold and use information so 'practice' regularly and study smart! Article: Highlighting Is a Waste of Time: The Best and Worst Learning Techniques 1. research finds that learning strategies we do commonly employ, like rereading and highlighting, are among the least effective. 2. In a comprehensive report released on Jan. 9 by the Association for Psychological Science, the authors, led by Kent State University professor John Dunlosky, closely examine 10 learning tactics and rate each from high to low utility on the basis of the evidence they’ve amassed Textbook  Notes:  Week  1  &  PSYC100/Section  0106     Dr,  Ryan  Curtis   Top Rated Effective Strategies : 1. Distributed Practice: No Cramming: It’s much more effective to dip into the material at intervals over time. a. the longer you want to remember the information the longer the intervals should be. 2. Practicing Testing: Not a common method used but something more familiar and captures its benefits are flash cards. "Middle- Ground" Strategies (not useless, but not exactly effective either) 1. mental imagery, interrogation, interleaved practice, and mnemonics OpenPsyc: The Testing Effect 1. reading things over and copying things into your own notes will only help you remember for a few minutes; ineffective reading strategy 2. example, Roediger & Karpicke had college students study a passage of text; all students were given 7 minutes to study the passage and then were randomly assigned into two groups… one group was given another 7 minutes to continue studying and the other group was given a test on what they had read. a. The final test of what students had learned took place after either 5 minutes, 2 days or 1 week. 3. The students were also asked how confident they were that they remembered what they had learned. Students who were given the extra time to study more were more confident, and did a little bit better when the final test was 5 minutes later. However, the students who took a practice test instead did much better on a test that was 2 days or a week later. o   all students: study 7 minutes o   one group: practice test - final test 2 days or 1 week later other group: extra 7 minutes to study- final test 5 mins later Ø   Conclusion: spending hours staring at your notes is not as effective as being tested. a. Quiz yourself, quiz your classmates, write test questions and then practice answering them. b. It is all about training your brain to access the information and use it. Article: Student Mindset Can Enhance Learning 1.   Investigators discovered material was better retained if a student understood that they would be expected to teach the material. 2.   When compared, students expected to teach the material did better than the students who expected to just be tested on the material- John Nestojko, Ph.D. 3.   published in journal Memory & Cognition, researchers conducted a series of reading-and- recall experiments in which one group of students is told they will be tested on a selection of written material, and another group is led to believe they are preparing to teach the passage to another student. 4.   When teachers prepare to teach, they tend to seek out key points and organize information into a coherent structure,” Textbook  Notes:  Week  1  &  PSYC100/Section  0106     Dr,  Ryan  Curtis   5.   Findings suggest that simply telling learners that they would later teach another student changes their mindset enough so that they engage in more effective approaches to learning than did their peers who simply expected a test. E. Healthy Brain= Better Gains PDF Article: Don't Neglect The Obvious: Sleep, Nutrition, Exercise 1.Sleep, nutrition, and exercise is one effective way to make sure your baseline performance is at an optimum. a. the brain should be given adequate time to rest and recover b. deficency of brain nutrients can result in mental impairment 2. lack of sleep causes a whole range of cognitive problems 3. exercise is beneficial to mental performance a. for its short term oxygen boost b. also maintain healthy blood supply to the brain 4. The cebrovascular system (provides essential nutrients; removes toxins) is maintained and improved by regular exercise In Action 1. lack of sleep- impairment of mental performance 2. good sleep important for memory a. things learned shortly before sleep are better retained than those learned earlier in the day 3. Sleep becomes increasingly important as things learned becomes more complex (like physical (juggling), verbal, or purely mental) 4. Sleep Deprivation can negatively affect mental performance and muscle control a. s.d. also results in mood disturbances 5. skimping on sleep to study can be counterproductive a. each hr s.d worth half an hour awake 6. Surprisingly it is found that lack of sleep does not affect mental function but does affect long term health resulting in bad health conditions such as high blood pressure, inflammation, diabetes, heart disease, Nutrition 1. some nutrients and diet options linked particularly to brain health a. vitamin b12 and folic acid: creation of neurotransmitters, keeps risky amino acid, hymocysteine, to a minimum, high levels of hymocysteine are known to cause impaired brain function and possible damages to the heart b. various fats; those high in cereal and vegetables are good for cognitive function; also certain omega - 3 fatty acids (flax seeds, walnuts, oily fish) c. antioxidants prevents the oxidation of other chemicals, a process known to produce tissue damaging substances called free radicals; several essential nutrients are antioxidants including vitamins A, C, E, and selenium - a low level of antioxidants have been linked to a number of brain disorders such as Alzheimers disease - good intake of those nutrients help protect against cognitive decline later on 2. missing breakfast has been consistently linked to poor mental performance, particularly on memory and visual recognition tasks (research carried out mostly in children) Textbook  Notes:  Week  1  &  PSYC100/Section  0106     Dr,  Ryan  Curtis   a. some evidence that high fiber foods release energy slowly, so they are typically good for morning routines Exercise 1. Walking 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week is considered adequate exercise a. medium to long term it strengthens the heart, reduces blood pressure, and even lifts the mood b. short term activity boosts oxygen intake which in return is good for mental performance In Real Life 1 . The link between brain function and sleep, nutrition, and exercise is still only partially understood; recommendations change as new research emerges. 2. consistent finding: middle aged and older adults tend to show a greater detriment in mental function due to poor diet, sleep patterns, and exercise than younger adults. F: Self- Handicapping Website: Self- Handicapping Your Resolutions 1. One of the many reasons that people do not reach their goals is because they handicap themselves. a. to maintain self-esteem we consistently try to protect our self image b. some however protect self image by insuring failure- this is known as self- handicapping 2. In self-handicapping, the goal of self-doubters is to minimize their ability - or lack of it - as a pausible explanation for poor performance. a. if we fail in any area of tasks that we undertake, whether that be athletic, intellecutal, artistic, or social it reduces our feeling of competence and negatuvely affects our self-esteem. b. Person who failed can have some sort of handicap (flu, sleepless night, insufficent help, defective equipment) then - then failure cannot be taken in reflection on one's self but rather the logic is used by the self- handicapper that the handicapped situation put a barrier to successful performance and completion n of the task 3. Original experiment of self- handicapping took place in 1978. a. subjects who previously succeeded in a task were offered the choice of a performance hindering drug or a performance - helping drug. b. those who did not expect that success on the task would occur again took the opportunity to protect themselves - literally their "self-esteem" - by taking the performance-hindering drug. c. by taking the drug, the subjects manipulated the situation, so if failure did occur, it could be blamed on the performance-hindering drug. - this way, subjects could maintain the illusion that the first performance - which was successful - was a reflection of their true abilities; and avoid the frightening possibility that their upcoming performance would completely undermine their self-esteem. G: Stereotype Video: Stereotype Threat- Social Psychology In Action 1. the anxiety that the stereotype fosters could prevent a person from doing their best everyone is a member of some group that is stereotyped 2. when a group was told that the test measured athletic aptitude the african american group did better than the whites 3. when told it tested strategy - the white subjects did better than the blacks due to Textbook  Notes:  Week  1  & PSYC100/Section  0106     Dr,  Ryan  Curtis   reputational intimidation imposed on people WS1: *stereotype threat can be cause a decrease in performance because people are concerned that their performance might confirm negative beliefs about their group *in a study that was done about athletic performance, African-American athletes performed better than white athletes when the task was described as skill- based H: Distraction Video: Selective Attention Test 1. The students in white passed the basketball 15 times.* 2. The gorilla who walked through the middle is often missed because of selective attention and focusing on the basketball being passed around Video: Texting While Walking Accidents 1. in 2008 more than one thousand people went to emergency rooms because they got hurt texting while walking double the year before, and double the year before that 2. In Fort Lee New Jersey police say as more people are distracted the more likely they are to jay walk a. they're handing out 85 dollar tickets for jay walking 3. The human brain can only focus on doing one thing at a time a. to test that researchers at Western Washington University sent clown on unicycle through campus and only about a quarter of people using their phones noticed him Video: Digital Distractions 1. Your brain is inherently limited a. we need to focus our resources to the task at hand b. incapable of multitasking 2. In-attentional blindness- when we focus our attention on one thing we go blind to other things a. we go blind to the things we arent paying attention to b. only about 2.5 percent of undergraduates are capable of doing two things at once without performance deficits 3. Hemburg & Gang (2003) classroom randomly assigned as to continue using laptop or put laptop away and quiz at end of class. Those who were told to put their laptop away did significantly better than those who had their laptop out 4. Do laptops facilitate note taking (Mueller & Oppenheimer) a. nearly 2x the words b. nearly 2x verbatim c. case study: •   15 min TED talk - one group notes on paper -one group notes on laptop -one group notes on laptop but "do not transcribe" Textbook  Notes:  Week  1  &  2 PSYC100/Section  0106     Dr,  Ryan  Curtis   •   30 minute distractor •   test •   the group that took notes by hand did significantly better than those who took notes by laptop Ø   Conclusion: The more you write the less you understand; you should be thinking about what the speaker is saying 5. The Cone of Distraction (Diane Sieber) a. when one student does something on devices in a classroom it also effects the students around them that can see what they are doing as it draws their attention away from the lecture b. WS* - Testing the idea that laptops can create a cone of distraction, Sana (2013) found that those sitting behind others distracted students scored 17 percentage points worse than those who were not distracted. Key (*)- Worksheet WS- Worksheet  


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