Soc 101: Week 2 Notes
Soc 101: Week 2 Notes Soc 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hailey Hansen on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Miguel Centellas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Chapter 2 What is a theory? A theory is a set of related ideas that have applications. o Think about the theory of gravity. What is gravity? It is the force that holds us down because we have mass. In other words, an object that has mass has an attractive force. Therefore, the bigger the mass the stronger the force. o This theory emphasizes the relationship between two or more concepts. Scientific Method – the closest thing to instinct that we have Infants explore things – their curiosity drives them. What do they do? 1. Ask a question 2. Research 3. Hypothesis 4. Choose method (observation, survey, experiment, etc.) 5. Collect data 6. Analyze They put things in their mouths to determine if it is food. They have asked a question and perform an experiment to test their hypothesis that the block they are holding is food. They use their 5 senses to explore their surroundings. They look at the block, feel it, and put it in their mouth. Once they determine that the block isn’t food, they repeat the process. This process of repetition is how they learn. Saying “stop putting things in your mouth” to a child is the same as saying they are no longer allowed to explore their environment. Key Methods in Research (with textbook definitions) Qualitative and Quantitative Research (Statistics) – Qualitative research “involves studies done in natural settings that produce…descriptive information about the social world.” Quantitative research “involves the analysis of numerical data…derived from surveys and experiments to better understand…empirical social realities.” Observational Research – “involves systematically watching, listening to, and recording what takes place in a natural social setting” o These can be participant, in which “the researcher actually plays a role in the group or setting being observed,” or nonparticipant observational research, in which “the sociologist plays little or no role in what is being observed.” Ethnography – “involves the creation of a detailed account of what a group of people do and the way they live” Netnography – “involves accounts of what transpires online, particularly on social networking sites” Interviews – researchers “seek information from participants by asking a series of questions” Surveys – “involve the collection of information from a population…through the use of interviews and…questionnaires” Experiments – “involve the manipulation of one or more characteristics to examine the effect of that manipulation” Theories Karl Marx – Capitalism o Capitalism is a system in which people privately own the means of production and other people sell their labor. Durkheim – Organic Solidarity o Organic Solidarity is the idea that the division of labor brings people closer together. In other words, we all need each other economically. DuBois – Double Consciousness o Double Consciousness is the idea that there are two yous – the way you see yourself and the way others see you. This was created primarily for African Americans. Terms to know: Intersectionality – the intersection of various social statuses and the inequality and oppression associated with each in combination with others Mass Culture – cultural elements that are administered by large organizations, lack spontaneity, and are phony o Think reality TV Symbolic Interactionism – focuses on the role of symbols and how their meanings are shared and understood by those involved in the interaction Issues in Social Research Stanford Prison Experiment Chapter 3 Culture What is culture? The ideas, values, practices, and material objects that allow a group of people, even an entire society, to carry out the collective lives o Think about high school culture – popularity is everything. You have to date the right person, have the coolest car, the most stylish clothes, etc. Basic Elements of Culture Values – the general and abstract standards defining what a group or society as a whole considers good, desirable, right, or important Norms – the informal rules that guide what people do and how they live. They tell us what we should and should not do in a given situation. o Laws – norms that have been written down and formally enforced through institutions such as the state o Sanctions – how norms are reinforced. These can be in the form of punishments (negative) or rewards (positive). o Folkways – relatively unimportant norms o Mores – more important norms whose violation is likely to be met with severe negative sanctions Material culture – all of the material objects that are reflections or manifestations of a culture o Think of the Grove on game day Symbolic culture – the nonmaterial, intangible aspects of culture Language – a set of meaningful symbols that enables communication Food for thought: What is American culture?
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