Week 2 Global Politics Notes
Week 2 Global Politics Notes POS 160
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abbey Schroeder on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POS 160 at Arizona State University taught by Henry Sivak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Realism Background info: Mandate Countries WWI Ottoman Empire operated by Turkey o Losing the war; had colonies in the Middle East o The UK and the French were worried about the colonies getting their independence o = MANDATE Mandate when a great power supervises a smaller, “independent” country o Not a colony (foreign country taking over) o Ex: Jordan, Israel People who live there, maintain their nationality; BUT controlled by an external power by their own interest 193945: the mandated colonies start to fight for their REAL independence o Sometimes just a referendum, quick vote, go home o OR could be like the French fighting an 8 year war with Algeria Postcolonialism Uti posseidetis juris As you possess it (when looking at an African map) o Boundaries the country has day it’s born, have tangible representation on the ground o You can be independent, but you keep the boundaries o Hugeeee political and cultural issues National liberation movements o With economic independence, more and more states BUT not so powerful De jure technically countries; de facto not a lot of power Realism human nature is inherently called to be mainly violent and power seeking; the world is anarchic, see the world how it truly is Reorganize ‘jungle’ into a ‘zoo’ Independent states only act to gain more power Came about in 1940s1950s o Had only been taught in the classics Hobbes, Machiavelli, Morgenthau o Were advisors to gov after WWII o BUT this concept has been around since Peloponnesian War (Ancient Greece) Seek power and control Be hostile to equality Try to use the state as a moral person in politics Humans owe more to their state than to their strangers Machiavelli Florence advisor to Princes o Talked about how to keep power o 2 views to read The Prince Carefully assess your options and materials before you make decisions to defend yourself from aggressors and keep your power It is better to be feared than to be loved o Only when you can dominate people politically, THEN you can have an ordered society Classical realism o People are violent, nasty, unable to tolerate situations where there isn’t one dominating everyone o PEOPLE CAN’T TOLERATE PEOPLE’S EQUALITY This is the reason we have war o People always seek to assert their dominance over each other Thus humans need dominance o Sees world through reality; Power = another reality to look at the world o Statism the state is the only actor in politics; grim view in “international law” o Force & survival threatening to use force need this to get things done is okay if it serves the national interest o High vs. low politics domestic politics? Nah o National interest high priority o Zerosum politics o Collaboration, cooperation can use for small issues o Knowing when to do what needs to be done, and what isn’t necessary Ex: Rwandan Genocide o Originally a German colony, then became Belgium Hutus and Tutsi clans were ethnic markers Tutsi were favored because of lighter skin Tutsi were operating colony on behalf of Belgium = racist issues 1994 beginning of genocide in Rwanda UN sent only 300 peacekeepers (never getting more) US specifically didn’t call it a genocide and did nothing Morgenthau perspective: not a part of US interest, so stay out o Failure to act is ‘normal’, given a lack of compelling state interest o International law, morality are cheap talk o States are moral units, not just practical ones Ex: Civil war in Syria o 2011 Assad fired shots, then in July the Rebels fire back o Iran and Russia join Assad (PROXY WAR) o Gulf states (Saudi Arabia), Turkey, and then US are behind rebels Realist perspective, should we join? Yes! Keep ties with allies strong Laws against using chemical warfare, we have an interest to uphold that “But international law? Hmmm lol nah” classic realist Need to respect the balance of power Must intervene at the level of power international law is a separate reality When we intervene at International law level, failed because didn’t consider alliances that were present o Assad must go? Obama screwed up (realist) Obama stropping the use of chemical weapons, or trying to is good (liberals) o Hussein must go? We originally supported him, then said NOPE! And took him down USA has the highest GDP globally, but China is really close o IF China becomes top, would it mean anything? Realist: yes, would get power by being the most proponent force of economic policy; more power= more control Not realist: no, that is one small respect to what a super power would entail WWII and the Cold war WWII is the first war to be on a global scale Showcased the US’s global role o Also showed other countries taking control; Russian spider, spreading all over other countries Leads to huge debate: Hegemony v. Empire US doesn’t want to go and take over, BUT the original global power of Britain, was bankrupt Hegemony dominance; “soft” power o Isn’t only forcing people to do what you want, but to persuade them o Gives birth to structural realism o Balancing other countries, and keeping the US in charge; but only using force when absolutely necessary Cold war conflicts: o Great power politics Soviet vs US in ideology o Nonaligned countries Countries that had just gained independence, and were trying to figure out how to make it in the world o HUAC house of American communism / sociological level George Keenan o Authored the concept of containment o The world had changed radically from WWII and the Soviet was unlike any other gov o Soviet union was an ideological superpower; all strategy o Kremlin will continue to pursue their goals at world power o These ideas HUGELY shaped US policy = helps create structural realism Structure of global politics, tendency to create or mitigate against global politics