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3 Types of Terrorism

by: Savannah Mahalak

3 Types of Terrorism POLS 4138A

Savannah Mahalak

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About this Document

Talks about the 3 types of terrorism and their tactics.
International Terrorism
Srobana Bhattacharya
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Mahalak on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 4138A at Georgia Southern University taught by Srobana Bhattacharya in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Friday, September 2, y History of Terrorism 1945­ 2000 Rapoport’s Three Overlapping Waves of Terrorism: ­ 1945­ 1968: National liberation/ ethnic separation:  • Post WW1­ some countries were still under colonialism still • Example: North Ireland ­ 1968 ­ 1979: Left­ Wing Terrorism ­ Communism ­ 1979 ­ 2000: Religious Terrorism ­ Still going on today • ISIS is still part of religious terrorism, but they have changed how we look at terrorism. The First Phase of Terrorism:  ­ End of WW1 onwards ­ nations demanded autonomy ­ Different actors: Algeria, Cypres, Israel, Egypt (and more) ­ Algeria: FLN ­ Front de Liberation Nationale ­ Cypres: Greek Cyproit ­ Israel: Irgun later known as Lehi Lesson Learned from 1st Wave:  ­ Terrorism can succeed  ­ Repressive counter measures can increase terrorism The Second Wave: Left­ Wing Terrorism ­ 1960s: opposition of Korean War: “New Left” terrorism ­ International: Europe, Latin America, and the United States ­ Method: Political kidnappings, assassinations, and bombings 1 Friday, September 2, y ­ Agenda: Social Justice ­Germany: the Bader ­Meinhof Group, 1960s • Self ­ styled revolutionaries: bank robberies, burning of stores, murdered bankers ­ Italy: the Red Brigade, 1970 • 14,000 terrorist attacks in first 10 years; targeted prominent public officials Palestinian Connection ­ Left Wing terrorism in Europe had Palestinian assistance ­ Palestine Liberation Front (PLO) al ­ Fatah ­ 1975­ 77 German and Palestinian terrorists disrupted meeting in Vienna and hijacked  two airplanes The Americas ­ The United States: the Weatherman, the Black Panthers ­ Latin America: Tupamaros (Uruguay); Montoneros (Argentina) ­646 political murders ­ Spain: ETA (Bosque Nation and Liberty) • Method: Assassinations, 170 political murders ­ Ireland: Irish Republican Army • Method: Assassinations Lessons from the Second Wave:  ­ PLO and the network of other groups relying on each other ­ Golden Age of hijackings  ­ Internationalization of terrorism 2 Friday, September 2, y ­ Largely unsuccessful: unrealistic goals ­ Effectiveness of counter­measures The Third Wave: Islam Terrorism ­ Shi’a and Sunni Clash contempt for betrayers within their own Iranian revolution of  1979 ­ Afghanistan • Mujhaheddin ­ Beirut and beyond • PLO’s camps in Jordan, Lebanon and Yemen Terrorism in three Religious Traditions ­ David C. Rapport (1984) ­ The thugs ­ Hinduism ­ The Assassins ­ Islam ­ The Zealots ­ Sicari ­ Judaism Why these cases? ­ Durability  ­ Nature of Destruction ­ Methods ­ Organization ­ Not adequately analyzed (holy or sacred) The Comparative FrameWork (from religious to political) ­ The Thugs: no political purpose 3 Friday, September 2, y ­ The Assassins: recall terror Thugs ­ The Holy Terrorists  ­ Primary reason is God or deity ­ Intention: victims should experience terror for the pleasure of Kali, the Hindu goddess of terror and destruction of evil ­ Avoided publicity ­ Weapon: noose, strangling ­ When? 7th ­ 13th century 600 years ago ­ The Myth ­ Thugs believed they assisted Kali ­ Killing without shedding blood ­ Each Thug participated in three murders annually ­ How did the brother hood continue? New recruits = children of thugs ­ Thugs attacked only travelers ­ Main Object ­ Murder ­ Also need loot ­ to pay princes ­ Provision of international sanctuaries? How relevant? ­ Elaborate rules ­ The process of victimization: ­ Who were not murdered?  • Women  • Vagabonds 4 Friday, September 2, y • Lepers • The Blind • Members of Artisan class • Europeans ­ Suggestive of political goals? ­ Thugs lived two different lives: an extraordinary capacity of deception ­ Thugs believed that death actually benefited the victim. Assassins 1090 ­ 1275 ­ Religious and political motives ­ Purisication of Islam, perfect social order ­ Victims ­ seen as religious sacrifice ­ Weapon ­ Dagger  ­ They moved across state line ­ Establishing their own state: extensive network of supporting cells in sympathetic  urban centers ­ Who were killed? Orthodox religious or political leaders ­ Dramatically staged assassinations ­ Used a single, stylized form of attack. No other methods used. ­ How were they counted? ­ Mongols and Arabs moved in and captured them ­ How did the assassin retaliate the counter? ­ Assassins and Fedayeen (particular section within Assassins that were trained to be  assassins) Zalots­ Sicarii 60­ 77 AD 5 Friday, September 2, y ­ Jewish resistance to Roman ruld ­ Fostering revolt against Roman rule  ­ Weapon: Dagger  ­ International character ­ Survived 25 years  ­ Target ­ Greek population that lived in Judea and Romans who governed ­ How are they different from Holy terrorists? (Choice of targets) Other Features: ­ Ability to generate popular insurrection ­ Make oppression intolerable leading the insurrection ­ Frustrate every attempt to reconcile respective parties ­ Targeted wealthy Jewish landowners ­ Shock tactics to provoke fear 6


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