Gen Bio 2051, Chapter 1 Notes
Gen Bio 2051, Chapter 1 Notes BIOL 2051
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Banks on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2051 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Dr. Laurel Beck in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Chapter 1 Monday, August 22, 2016 7:27 PM General Biology Mon 9/22 Biology: Study of living things. 7 major characteristics of living things: 1. Cells and Organization 2. Energy use and Metabolism 3. Response to Environmental Changes 4. Regulation and Homeostasis 5. Growth and Development 6. Reproduction 7. Biological Evolution 1. Cells and Organization (smallest to largest) 1. Cells à made of atoms and larger molecules 2. Tissue à cells of the same type 3. Organ à contains 2 or more tissue types 4. Organism à anything that contains everything it needs to live 5. Population à group of organisms living together 6. Community à populations of 2 or more species 7. Ecosystem à interactions of the community and the environment 8. Biosphere à all the places on Earth where living organisms exist 2. Energy Use and Metabolism • Every organism utilizes energy in one way or another to stay alive § Nutrients: compounds that can be broken down to release energy § Metabolism: breakdown and buildup of various compounds within the cell 3. Response to Environmental Changes • To survive, a living thing must be able to adopt to changes in the environment § Avoiding toxins and predators § Move closer to things like nutrients § Protect yourself • To survive, a living thing must be able to adopt to changes in the environment § Avoiding toxins and predators § Move closer to things like nutrients § Protect yourself 4. Regulation and Homeostasis • stuff is constantly changing § homeostasisà process by which organisms regulate their cells to maintain stable conditions § Feedback mechanisms • One wayfor an organism to maintain homeostasis 5. (5) Growthand Development • growth à getting more or getting bigger cells • development --> gets defined and refined characteristics § mitosisàasexual reproduction: how an organism gets more cells § meiosisàprocess that helps generate cells for sexual reproduction 6. (6) Reproduction • organisms must reproduce § asexual reproductionàbacteria, cell division § sexual reproductionàcombining 2 different cells from different individuals to make a new organism • organisms resemble their parents § genesàblueprint or recipe for a particular organism • DNA contains genes 7. (7) Biological Evolution • how a population of organisms are modified over many generations § natural selectionà advantageous traits passed on to next generation • ex: moths on trees § 2 major routes of biological evolution 1. vertical descent with mutation § observe the lineage (series of ancestors for a particular species or group of species) § accumulation of mutation (changes) § ex: brownie to brownie with frosting 2. horizontal gene transfer § gene exchange from one species to another species OR a different species • ex: Spiderman getting bit by the radioactive spider • ex: brownie to brownie inside a cookie à genes from two different things to form another • Taxonomy • ex: Spiderman getting bit by the radioactive spider • ex: brownie to brownie inside a cookie à genes from two different things to form another • Taxonomy o a grouping a species based on similar characteristics o Classifying organisms o Species with a recent evolutionary ancestor are grouped together, then ancestors are grouped by theirs § 3 domains of life 1. eukarya-eukaryotic 2. bacteria } prokaryotic 3. archaea § prokaryotesàinclude archaea and bacteria o key features: § no nucleusàno protection/isolation of genetic material § has nucleoidànaked genetic material • lack internal membranes § eukaryotes o animals, plants, protists, fungi o key features: § do have a nucleus • membrane bound of DNA (genetic material) § do have internal membranes o continue organism classification until only one organism remains § classification continues from these big divisions until you’ve narrowed it down to one species § KingdomàPhylaàClassàOrderàFamilyàGenusàSpecies • Genomics and Proteomics o How is evolution studied? à looking for similar genes § Genomics study of genes § Find the sequence of the DNA (need the info) àallows us to examine evolutionary history àcomparing genes of currently existing species (continued) Wed 9/24 o Why are genomes so important? § Act as a relatively stable information unit § Provide continuity from gener Wed 9/24 o Why are genomes so important? § Act as a relatively stable information unit § Provide continuity from gener ation to generation § Act as an instrument of evolutionary change o Proteomics: study of proteins • The Scientific Method o Parts of the scientific method 1. Observations & Develop Questions based off those observations 2. Hypothesis & Prediction 3. Experimentation 4. Data Collection & Analysis 5. Accept or Reject Hypothesis 6. New Question
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