Intro to World Geography - GR 1123 Week Three
Intro to World Geography - GR 1123 Week Three 1123
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Baker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro world geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Intro to World Geography Week Three Notes- August 29- September 2, 2016 European Settlement (up to 1700) - dominated over the Native American settlement - a lot of North American culture originated from Europe decent Spanish: St. Augustine, Florida - the oldest permanent settlement in North America - the fort was used to protect shipping - it was considered a “weak settlement” by the Spanish Crown - acquired by the U.S. in 1819. - also settled in the Rio Grande area - much more successful; Santa Fe, 1610 - lots of missions - later became part of Mexico; 30,000 Spaniards stayed - Annexed by the U.S. in 1848 French - first settled in the northeast - 1606 port royal Nova Scotia - 1608 Quebec City - settled along major water bodies - great lakes - Mississippi River - settlements based on fur trading - dispute over territory and fur rights led to war with England (1754- 1763) - French and Indian War: British name - La Guerre de la Conquete (war of conquest): French name - despite loosing, the French are still very influential. Dutch - Fort Nassau, 1614 (the first settlement) - near Albany, New York - fur trade with Iroquois - New Amsterdam, 1625 - walled city of 800 by 1664 - english fleet took over, it became New York City. 13 Colonies - divided into 3 “cultural hearths” - New England colonies (Boston Area) - Midland/Middle colonies (Philadelphia area) - Southern colonies (Chesapeake Bay) New England cultural hearth - plymouth colony, 1620 - Massachusetts bay colony, 1629 - Boston, 1630 Midland Colonies - Pennsylvania, 1651 - mostly agriculture - Philadelphia - the capital of the U.S. before the district of columbia was established - where the declaration and the constitution were written - it was the largest city at the time Southern Colonies - Jamestown, 1607 - tobacco - they grew it and it was a huge moneymaker - labor - they needed labor to harvest the tobacco fields - plantations and rural society - for the wealthy - Charleston, South Carolina - exported lots of tobacco and attracted the wealthy Urbanization, Industrialization, and settlement frontiers - 1783-1865 - the U.S. gained independence in 1783 - land acquisition 1780s-1853 -by 1865 - territory had gotten 3 times larger, population had grown 15 times larger, economy had grown 20 times larger, the urban population had grown 30 times larger - the U.S. has the third largest economy in the world (behind England and France) Public and Private lands - the homestead act of 1867 - made public land able to become private land when conditions are met - most of the fertile land had already been occupied long before Conservation Movement - mid to late 1800s to early 1900s - extermination of the american buffalo - response to exploited resources - timber cut trees without reforestation - ranches overgrazing grasslands - mining companies were unregulated Industry and resources (U.S. and Canada) - manufacturing corridor - st. Lawrence seaway - manufacturing belt - today it is referred to as the rust belt - it was a major thriving region where lots of things were manufactured like steel and it eventually declined thats why it is not called the rust belt. North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA) - it protected intellectual property, increased trade in many ways Urbanization Stages - primary: extraction of raw materials from nature - secondary: manufacturing of raw materials into finished goods - lumber to furniture - steel to automobiles - tertiary: service economics to support production and consumption - banking, retail, transportation Fisheries - 90% of fish comes from the ocean - especially North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans - U.S. and Canada are very important to the world seafood market - Canada exports to U.S. is 50% Forestry - at least 50% of land was originally covered by forests - the U.S. lost 45% of original forests - Canada only lost 10% - in the U.S. 70% of the land is under private control - in Canada, 9% is privately owned; 91% is federal of provincial owned - Canada: - worlds leading exporter of forest products - ca. 85% goes to the U.S. - only consumes 20% of its own production urban geography - urban areas are the most efficient habitation structure for humans - maximizing the efficiency of resources (i.e. time and energy) - facilitates transportation and migration - maximizing social aspects towns and cities - both are nucleated settlements - buildings clustered around a center - both have a central business district - Starkville = Main st. - Memphis = Union ave. - CITIES ARE BIGGER Suburbs - specialized segment of a large urban complex - industrial, commercial, residential Boroughs - one of the administrative divisions of a large city urban locations - reasons for a city’s existence: - they provide goods and services for itself and for others - Where to build a city: in the old days, this was based on important criteria: - water, food (located near fertile soil or marine resources), transportation, protection - three of these are still important today - water, transportation, and protection transportation in North America - there is an organized system in place for interstates - routes with odd numbers run north to south - routes with even numbers run east to west - for north to south routes, the lowest numbers are in the west - for east to west routes, the lowest numbers are located in the south what about Hawaii? - technically there is no interstate in Hawaii because the term interstate refers to connecting states and Hawaii is alone in the ocean but it has a interstate because its interstates were built by the same people who built the actual interstates. - H1, H2, and H3 (three main roadways in Hawaii) connect military facilities on the islands Alaska? - no it doesn't have any interstates - the culture of North America is no longer a melting pot. the cultures are now more mixed and spread out rather than clustered together. Middle America: - Basic Facts: - culturally complex - african and european influences not he islands - spanish and american influences on the mainland - most economically poor populations - has some of the most biodiverse landscapes in the world - holds 7% of the worlds biodiversity - volcanoes, deserts, rainforests, beaches - religion: mostly catholicism - sometimes called: latin america or Mesoamerica - regions of middle america - Mexico - largest land area - central america - includes 7 republics - Guatemala - Belize - Honduras - El Salvador - Nicaragua - Panama - Costa Rica - greater Antilles - the 4 large islands - Cuba, Puerto Rico, Haiti/Dominican Republic, Jamaica - lesser Antilles - small islands - US British Virgin Islands, Bahamas, Antigua/ Barbados, Trinidad/Tobago, Curacoa/Aruba - Regional Divisions: - Central America - Guatemala to Panama - geopolitically fragmented - Panama Canal Zone controlled by the U.S. until 1999 - population of about 30 millions, mostly Mestizo - Exports of bananas, coffee, sugar, and cotton - dependency on the American Market - First Video on Panama Canal: - French were the first to try and build the Panama Canal - the Chinese were the first to invent the locks - Second Video: - 144 different trade routes - 160 million countries - Caribbean - larger number of islands, about 35 million inhabitants - lesser Antilles: crest of volcanic mountains - European an African influence: - cuba: 70% white - Haiti: 90% black - Dominican Republic: 60% mestizo - important export functions: - sugar for cuba, coffee, sugar and coach for hispaniola, bauxite for jamica - tourismL - important function - dependent on the U.S. - Physical Geography - land bridge- Isthmus - Archipelago - group of islands - active geologically - plate tectonics - natural hazards! - climate zones in middle America - mostly tropical - some desert climates (NW Mexico) - Natural Hazards: - Hurricanes: - central america is hardest hit by hurricanes - biggest impact by hurricanes is storm surge and flooding— not wind - sewage is floating in the flood water and causes disease - last big hurricane— hurricane Patricia— last year tectonic plates in middle america - 4 plates: NA plate, Caribbean plate, Pacific plate, Cocoas plate - Haiti 2010 Earthquake - 7.0 magnitude - 3,500,000 people affected - 220,000 estimated deaths - nearly 200,000 homes destroyed - 4,000 schools were damaged of destroyed
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