Intro to psychology
Intro to psychology 1301 Psych
Sam Houston State University
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1301 Psych at Sam Houston State University taught by Dr Allen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 149 views.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Intro to Psychology Wednesday, August 31, 2016 What defines Psychology as Psychology is the study of behavior a field of study and mental process • Psychologist use the scientific method Goals of Psychology Description: To observe a behavior and make note of everything (what, where and whom) Explanation: Try to come up for a reason why it's happening Prediction: to try to identify what will happen again Control: How to change it The History of Psychology 1879- Wilhelm Wundt: Father of Psychology • Set up the 1st Psychology lab and Founded Structuralism Structuralism Founded by: Wundt Focuses on the Structure of the mind by simply asking patients that same old question "How do you feel about that?" • died out in the 1900's • Edward Bradford Titchener brought Structuralism to America Functionalism Functionalism- function of behavior • Focus on why we think and smell etc. Founded by: William James Psychoanalysis • Theory that we're all profoundly affected by the mental process that we are By: Sigmund Freud not aware of. • Another important part is the unconscious (the thing that is below consciousness) was still discoverable through dreams projections, Free Association to root out repressed feelings and gain self-insight. • This meant people with mental illness can be cured with talk therapy and self-discovery. • Focus on observable behavior and ignore consciousness Behaviorism • Early work explained phobias Ivan Pavlov John B. Watson B.F Skinner Psychodynamic Focuses on what the role of the unconscious mind and its influence on conscious Based on Freud's Theory behavior, early childhood experiences, development of sense and other motavtions Psych Page 1 Based on Freud's Theory behavior, early childhood experiences, development of sense and other motavtions Focuses on how be behavioral responses are learned through classical or Behavioral operant conditioning Based on early work of Watson and later B.F Skinner Focuses on human potential, free will and possibility to choose their own Humanistic destiny Carl Rodgers and Abraham Maslow Focuses on memory intelligence perception through problem solving, language and learning Cognitive (Has roots in Gestalt Psychology) Focuses on the behavior of individuals as the result of their environment around Sociocultural them Examines human behavior to biological events in the body suchas hormones, Biopsychological brain structures, and activity in the nervous system Evolutionary Focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics suchas why we lie? Works with either humans or animals in a veriety of settings based on area of Psychologist specialization Medical Doctor who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of psychological Psychiatrist disorders Has training in the area of social work often has a Professional license to Psychiatric Social Worker practice 1) Question and develop theory not a hunch but explains and organizes lots of Scientific method different observations and predicts outcomes 2) Hypothesis i.e. a testable prediction 3) Test with a replicable experiment Data collection methods Case Studies Take an in depth look at one individual topic but can be misleading and can't be Psych Page 2 Case Studies Data collection methods Take an in depth look at one individual topic but can be misleading and can't be Replicated. However case studies are good at showing what can happen and frame up future questions. Naturalistic Observation Watch behavior in a natural environment. Both Naturalistic observations and case studies are great at describing behavior but very limited in explaining. Survey (Interviews) Ask people to report their opinions and behaviors. Lab Observation Observes people and or animals in a lab setting. Naturalistic Observation and Lab observation can lead to hypothesizes that can later be tested Once you describe behavior with survey, cases studies, Lab Observations, and Putting it together Naturalistic Observations you can predict future behavior by seeing hoe one trait or behavior is related to another or how they correlate. Is a measure of relationship between two or more variables (Anything that Correlation can change or vary) Correlations predict the possibility of cause and effect relationships but they cannot prove them. Correlation≠ Cassation Allows investigators to isolate different effects by manipulating an independent Experiments variable and keeping other variables constant. Operational Specifically names the steps or procedures used to control or measure the variable in the experiment Groups Experimental: Is the group that gets the independent variable or is the group that gets messed with. Control: Receives no treatment or is not going to get messed with. Placebo Effect One or more both groups are not informed about what's actually being tested. Experimenter Effect (Double Blind) When the researchers themselves don't know which group is Experimental and which is control. Psych Page 3 When the researchers themselves don't know which group is Experimental and which is control. Ethics of Guidelines for Research with Humans • one single perspective is used to explain all human behavior and processes. Psychological Research • rights and well-being of participants must be weighed against the study's value to science • participants must be allowed to make an informed decision about participating (informed consent) • deception must be justified • participants may withdraw from the study at any time • participants must be protected from risks or told explicitly of risks • investigator must debrief participants, telling the true nature of the study and expectations of results • data must remain confidential Research with Animals • any animal research is also covered by ethical considerations; primary focus is on avoiding any unnecessary pain or suffering Why use Animals? • some research questions are important but can be difficult or dangerous to answer with human participants • animals are easier to control • animals have shorter lives; easier to study long-term effects Psych Page 4
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