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Chem 211 Week 1 notes

by: Neha simon

Chem 211 Week 1 notes CHEM 211-003

Neha simon
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About this Document

These notes are about conversion, temperature and significant figures. These are some important concepts in chemistry.
General Chemistry 1
Pritha G. Roy
Class Notes
general, Math




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Neha simon on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 211-003 at George Mason University taught by Pritha G. Roy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Science at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
31/08/16   W1D2 Chap 1­ Notes units Chemistry uses SI units: units used in Chemistry Common prefixes:    These units can be converted into Tens. 31/08/16   W1D2 The sides of this cube are 1m what is the volume?       1*1*1=1 must have units        m*m*m= m^3  NB: when computing numbers you have to compute the  measurements as well.    Convert into centimeters cubed.       1 m= 100cm        100*100*100= 1,000,000,000        cm* cm* cm= cm^3 ­ Conversion factors: conversion factors are ratios used to express a quantity in  different units.  - Conversion factor is used to cancel out units. Have to have a systematic approach - State problem  - Plan  - Clarify the known and the unknown  - Suggest steps from the known and the unknown. - Make a flow chart. - Solution  - Check  - Comment  - Follow­up problem  Density  Density= mass/volume   Mass= density * Volume  Volume= Mass/density  Density= mass/volume                     Kg/m^3­> have to write is as kg/m^3  1000mL= 1L =1000 cc 31/08/16   W1D2 Temperature scales: ­ Kelvin: this is called the absolute scale and here is why > The size of Kelvin is 100 > K Scale has a different Zero point, an absolute zero.  > Absolute 0K= ­273.15 ºC > Hence the boiling point and the freezing point are + or ­ 273.15 K  Ex: A child has a fever of 311.15 K what is the degree in Celsius?             311.15    ANS: 38 ºC             ­273.15               38.00 ­ Celsius: based on the freezing and boiling point of water > The size of Celsius is 1/100 between freezing and boiling point.  ­Fahrenheit: freezing point is 32 ºF and boiling point is 212 ºF > 212 – 32= 180 Fahrenheit degrees represents the same change as 100  Celsius degrees  > 1 Celsius degree = 180/100 Fahrenheit degrees = 9/5 Fahrenheit.  Conversion from ºC to ºF: change the degree size and adjust the zero point.          ºF= 9/5 * (ºC) + 32 Conversion from ºF to ºC: Change the zero point then adjust the degree size             ºC= (ºF – 32) 5/9       * This is just solving for ºC  A child has a fever of 38.7 ºC normal body temperature is 98.6 ºF does this child  have a fever? What is the temperature in kelvins?     ºF= 9/5 (38.7 ºC) + 32      K= 38.7 + 273.15      ºF= 101.7                          K = 311.8 Yes the child has fever           31/08/16   W1D2 Sig figs  ­Every measurement has uncertainty; the rightmost digit is always estimated.  ­ The recorded digit is always is sig figs  ­  The greater the # of digits the greater the certainty.  ­ Anything NON ZERO is significant  ­ Zeros are significant after the decimal point.  ­Zeros are significant between numbers.  ­Zeros that end a number are significant.        ­ Whether they occur before or after the decimal point.         ­DECIMAL POINT MUST BE PRESENT. 31/08/16   W1D2  IF your number starts with a decimal point add a 0 before the point .  ­Rules for sig fig calculation   1. for multiplication and division: the  ans contains the same number    2. for + and ­: the least number of sig figs will be the ruling one for the answer.           Ex: 30.5              +10.358               40.858       ANS: 40.9   if you have to round based on 5 than odd numbers round up and even  numbers stay the same.   Keep everything till you get to the final step.  Precision and accuracy and error - Systematic error: produces values that are either all high or all low  - Random error: produces values that are both high and low.  31/08/16   W1D2


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