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PSY 270 Chapter 2 Notes

by: Samantha Grissom

PSY 270 Chapter 2 Notes PSY 270

Samantha Grissom

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These notes are from our second class when we discussed genetics and conception.
Child Psychology
Class Notes
Genetics, DNA, Conception, Zygote, Chromosomes, dominant, recessive
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Grissom on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 270 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Staff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Child Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Southern Mississippi.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Definitions Examples Important information PSY 270 Chapter 2: Genetics and Conception Let’s start with the general information The Basics of Genetics: ­ Chromosomes­ bundle of DNA; humans have 46 ­ Genes­ segments of chromosomes ­ DNA­ combinations of nucleotides (Adenine and Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine),  sugar, and phosphates to code genes ­ Types of cell division: 1) Mitosis­ standard division creating 46 chromosomes Parent cell ­> replicated DNA ­> 2 identical daughter cells 2) Meiosis­ reduction division creating 23 chromosomes Parent cell ­> 2 daughter cells with half of the genetic information as the parent  cell ­ Genotype­ genetic makeup ­ Phenotype­ physical traits you can see due to genetic makeup ­ Alleles­ smallest part of a gene ­ Homozygous­ when a pair of alleles have the same traits ex) BB ­ Heterozygous­ when a pair of alleles have different traits ex) Bb ­ Types of traits 1) Dominant­ a trait that is expressed even if only one allele contains the trait;  capital letters in Punnett squares 2) Recessive­ a trait that is expressed only if both alleles contain the trait;  repressed if paired with one dominant trait; lower case letters in Punnett  squares Conception: ­ Ova mature when puberty introduces hormonal changes ­ Ovum are released every month from ovaries to fallopian tubes to uterus ­ Conception­ when a sperm attaches itself to the egg/ovum and gets through the gelatinous layer to line up chromosomes ­ If a sperm is not there when the ova is released, it is discharged. ­ zygote­ the combination of an ova and a sperm to make 23 pairs of chromosomes (22  autosomes and 1 sex chromosomes) ­ types of prenatal testing: 1) Blood screening (AFP)­ testing the blood in the uterus to check for neural tube defect 2) Ultrasound Sonography­ creating an image to show growth and eventually test for the sex of the fetus 3) Chorionic Villus Sampling­ testing the embryonic cells sloughed off and  floating around in the placenta; usually during weeks 10­12 4) Amniocentesis­ testing the amniotic fluid for chromosomal abnormalities and  fetal infections; usually after week 15 ­ Types of alternative conception: 1) Artificial insemination­ a sperm is placed in the uterus 2) In vitro fertilization­ a woman’s egg is fertilized and implanted into her fallopian tube; high chance of turning into twins 3) Donor in vitro fertilization­ another woman’s egg is donated for fertilization and  placement into a fallopian tube 4) Surrogate mother­ a woman’s egg is fertilized and placed into another woman’s  uterus to develop the fetus ­ In 1978, Louise Brown was introduced into the world as the first “test tube baby.” ­ What causes infertility: ­ Males 1) Low sperm counts 2) Deformities in sperm 3) Low sperm motility 4) Infectious diseases 5) Injury to the testicles 6) Autoimmune responses ­ Females 1) Irregular ovulation 2) Lower hormone levels 3) Obstructions of the fallopian tract 4) Tissue inflammation Genetic Abnormalities; ­ Too many or too few chromosomes causes abnormalities ­ Chromosome abnormalities 1) Down syndrome­ trisomy of the 21  chromosome ­ Trisomy­ 3 copies of one autosome ­ Characteristics: 1) Abnormalities in facial features 2) Abnormalities in cognitive development 3) Abnormalities in motor development ­ Sex chromosome abnormalities: 1) Klinefelter’s Syndrome­ a male contains XXY sex chromosomes, meaning he contains too little testosterone 2) Turner’s Syndrome­ A woman contains one X sex chromosome but has  too little estrogen 3) Triple X Syndrome­ a woman contains three X sex chromosomes but the  abundance of estrogen can cause infertility ­ Autosomal disorders (gene disorders on a chromosome) 1) PKU 2) Sickle Cell  3) Tay Sach’s  4) Cystic Fibrosis ­ Disorders of genes attached to the X chromosome (recessive gene) 1) Red­green colorblindness 2) Hemophilia 3) Duchenne’s ­ Men are more susceptible to these disorders because they only have one X  chromosome. Women have two XX chromosomes, introducing the chance of a  dominant gene masking the recessive gene’s disorder. Nature vs. Nurture Controversy 1) Adoption studies ­ Children exhibit phenotypes of adoptive parents, point to nurture ­ Children exhibit phenotypes of biological parents, points to nature 2) Twin Studies ­ If both traits of identical and fraternal twins are similar points  towards nurture ­ Identical twins have traits more similar than fraternal twins points  towards nature


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