ANSC 1000 Lecture 5-7 Week 3
ANSC 1000 Lecture 5-7 Week 3 ANSC 1000
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Date Created: 09/02/16
ANSC 1000Lecture 5 8-29-16 Nova ScienceNow (Video) https://youtu.be/j-CAhALUBvk Why areanimals so smart? Thisvideowas solelyfocusedon animalintelligenceand observinghowtheything. In the beginningofthevideo,we are introducedtoChaser,a 6- year-oldbordercollie,who seems to be a littlebrighterthan your average dog.Her ownertells us thatshehas 1,000 toys that she can distinguishbetweenandknowsthenamesof. In the video,the hostputher to severaltrials,each time pickingout toys from thepile where neitherthedognor the ownercould see what he hadchosen.He placed allofthe toysbehindthe couch,calledout thenames ofthetoys he wantedChaserto go fetch,andshe wouldbringbackeach toycorrectly100% ofthe time. He thendecidedto putchaser to anothertestbybringingin a toythatChaserhasnever seen before, a stuffedCharlesDarwin doll,thathe referred to as“Darwin.” He placedit behindthe couch with some ofChaser’stoysthatshe knewand toldherto go find “Darwin.”It tookChasera littlelongerto come upwith a toy,butshe broughtthetoythatshe didnotrecognize, being the Darwindoll.Theythinkthatshe usedprocess ofelimination byobservingallthe toys sheknew andpairinga namethatshe hadnever heardwith a toythatshe didnotrecognize. The theorybehindwhyChaseris sosmart is dueto a gene discoveredbyresearchers studyingdoggenomes.Thisparticular gene, called CTNND2,is animportantgenein humansfor cognitivedevelopment.Thebordercolliebreed showsselective breedingfor thisspecificgenome. BrianHare is a primateresearcherthatwe are introducedto.He works with chimpsandbonobosperformingtestsonthem. One particulartesthe usesis a test thatis usedon smallchildren between12 and18 monthsoldwhere anotherindividualpoints in thedirectionthattheywant the childto go or lookandthe childrespondsbygoing inthatdirection.Hare hada very difficulttimegettinghis chimpsto do thistask.Dogs, however, will performthe taskwithno problem.Briansuspectsthateven thoughchimpshavelarger brainsthandogsand are more closelyrelatedtohumansgenetically,dogs’social intelligenceis closer to ours. These theoriesbroughtaboutthedevelopmentofdogcognition labswhich are usedto helpdeterminehowdogs thinkandwhy theirmindsare shapedtheway theyare.Scientistsbelievethat the way dogs’mindsare shapedoriginatedwiththeirevolution from wolves. Wolveshavea much more violentsociallife.Even wolves that havebeenbroughtupandraisedby humanscanbecome violent towardsthem iftheydecidethattheyhavea disputewiththe human.Theyare much more emotionallyreactivetowards humansthandogs. At some pointduringtheirdomesticationprocess,dogswere shapedduringseveralthousandyearstobe ableto readour socialquesto better survivewith humans.Dogs tendto havea betteremotionaltolerancewhichallowsthemto payattention to humans. A common disputeiswhetheror not animalsarejustobeying commandsor iftheyhavesomekind ofa deeperunderstanding. One ofthe biggest challengesfor animalresearchersis to come up withtests thatcan distinguishbetweenthetwo. 2 DougHamiltontestedthistheorywith a set ofdolphinsin a Caribbeancove.Hamiltonstatedthatabig challenge researchers face when assessingthe intelligenceofdolphinsis thattheirunderwaterworldis very differentfrom ours. Hamiltondidanexperimentwiththe dolphinswherehetooka plasticdivingringandburiedit inthe sandoutsideofthe dolphins’enclosure.Thedolphinwasabletolocate thering easilybyusingecholocation.Echolocationislikea radar tothe dolphin.Theyareableto detect an objecteasilyeven ifthey cannotsee it becausetheycan producea soundthatwillbounce offthe objectand come backto them. There was anotherexperimentperformedonthedolphins where theywere instructedtocreate togetherin orderto see if theycouldcommunicateandcome up with a trickalltheir own. Underwatercameras recordedthe dolphinsappearingto communicatewitheach otherthroughvariousclicks and squeals.Whenthedolphinsemergedoutofthe water, they swam on theirbacks andflippedtheirtalesupwardsoutofthe water.The dolphintrainerexpressedthatshehadnever seem them dothisbefore. Elephantsanddolphinshaveself-awareness.Theyare ableto recognize themselvesina mirror andpinpointdifferenceson theirexterior(ex.The elephantshownwithan “X” on her head). Jake Wardworked withanimalswho specializeincamouflage like cephalopods.Thecephalopodsarereferred to asthe “Einsteinsofmollusks.”The onesthatare focused on inthis videoare the cuttlefish,squid,andoctopi. Octopi havevery large brains.Rubyis anoctopusthatwas introducedinthevideoas beingableto thinkandproblem solve.He was given a jar thathasa twist offlidcontaininga shrimpon theinside.In the beginning,hewouldtwist thelid the wrongway andtightenit.Eventually,hefiguredoutthe correct 3 wayto twist the lid.He haslearnedhowto twistoffthe lid,get the shrimpout,andputthe lidbackon. Cephalopodsusecamouflageasa way to avoidpredators.The camouflagemechanismis controlledbythe brain.Theoctopus can transformitsshape,texture,color, andpatterninabout 7/10 ofa second.This is controlledbyindividualneuronsinthe brainthattraveldirectlyto the skinthat can sometimesbe the lengthofa meter anddonot containsynapsesthatallowsitto camouflageto anysurface andbackground. The biologicalprinciplecalledparsimonyiswhatresearchers relateto the octopi’sabilitytodothisprocess so rapidlywithout havinga brainthe sizeof a supercomputer.Parsimonyis an idea thatnaturalworksout efficient,simpleways to accomplish complextasks. Guidedbythisprinciple,themarine biologistwhofollowedthe octopusdecidedtostudycuttlefishaswell.He focusedon the patternoftheircamouflage.The cuttlefishsimplifytheirchoices byusingthree patterntypes:uniform,mottled,anddisruptive. Uniform– verylittlecontrast Mottled– lightand darkbitsof contrast Disruptive– a lot ofcontrast To controlthearea andcontrastthe cuttlefishareexposedto, theyare placedagainstbackgroundstheywouldnever encounterinthe wild.Witheach background,thecuttlefish exhibitseachofthe threeforms of camouflage.The animalis ableto use itsbrainto measurethe amountofcontrastin the surroundingareaandaltersits skin toa similarcontrast. Theyuse theirbrainsfor othertaskssuch as planningand shelter. 4 A particularmalecuttlefishidentifyingasSepia apamawillnot allowothermales neartheir mates.Thisbrings aboutatype of strategyinthe male attemptingtoget near the female.Theyare actuallyableto camouflagethemselvesas femaleswhich allows them toslip pasttheunsuspectingmaleonguard andhave access tothe female.In a studythatwas performed onthis particularmatingprocedure,halfofthemale cuttlefishdisguised as femalesgot through.In fiveofthoseobservedmating attempts,two achievedsuccessfulfertilizations. Alexwas a veryintelligentbirdthatwasraisedbyDr. Irene Pepperberg.She beganteachingAlexthe nameofdifferent objects.She developedtrainingmethodforAlexcalled the model/rivaltechniquetohelpteachhim.Thiswas a processof havingthe objectthatthe birdwanted,showingitto the student who was the modelfor the bird’sbehavior(rival),andshewould give thecorrect responseandscratch herselfmuch like the bird would.Dr. Pepperbergwouldpraisethestudentfor thecorrect actionsandanswer, whichwoulddrawAlex’s attentiontoher andhowshe was responding.Thenthesame processwouldbe presentedtothe birdin orderto teach him.This processwas an 8-12 hour/dayprocess. Dr. PepperbergtaughtAlexbasedonhis naturalintelligencehe wouldhaveneededtosurviveinthe wild.She simplybuiltonit. By2007, Alexcouldcountto 8, differentiatebetweencolors, shapes,sizes,do simplemath,andhe knew over100 words.He was not onthe same languagelevel,but he was on thesame cognitivelevel as a 5-6-year-oldchild. On September 6,2007, Alex theparrotdied. 5 ANSC 1000Lecture 6 8-31-16 Types ofAnimal BehaviorContinued Caregiving Behavior An animal’scaregivingbehaviorcanoriginatefrom either the sire or dam.Typically,thecaregivingnatureis maternallyoriented. A way thata motherimmediatelyexpressesthisbehaviorisaftershe hasgiven birth.Mother animalswilllicktheiroffspringin orderto clean it,stimulatebloodflow,andencouragethem to standand nurse. Females can become veryaggressivein protectingtheiryoungshortly after givingbirth.Thisis whyit is very importanttopayclose attention to newmothersbecausetheir post-parturitionbehaviorsareunknown andvery unpredictable. There is typicallyastrongbondbetweena dam andher young.This is importanttorememberwhen tryingto takecare ofor approachthe newbornto helppreventanysort ofinjuryor attack from themother. Youngpigs will feed onan ad libfeeder inorder to reduce nursing time. Thisprovidesthemwith a foodsource thatis alwaysobtainable. At some point,therewillbe a naturalreductioninthemilkproduced bythe mother.However, withoutthestimulusofnursing,thiswill increasethe rate ofreduction. The naturalreductionoflactationencouragestheyoungpigsto begin foragingfor theirown food.This iswhen the caregivingfrom the motherbegins todecline. Animalsareparticularabouttheirprocessofgivingbirth.Mostof the soon-to-bemotherslookfora safe, privateplaceto havetheir young. Cows willoften calveduringthe darkhoursof theday.Thishabitcan 6 be alteredbyadjustingtheirfeedingtimebecause a cow willusually go begin the birthingprocessonce she haseaten. Care-Soliciting Behavior Younganimalstendtocry out for helpwhen theyfeel distressed, disturbed,orhungry.Different noisesthatcouldbe heardare bleats, bawls,squeals,andchips.Thisis a characteristicofadultanimalsas well iftheyare understress. A female andher offspringknoweach other’svocal soundsand recognize them verywell. A very effectiveway thata damwill recognize her offspringis byits smell.Theyoungtendto nursefrom their motherwiththe rear end fear the female’shead.Thereasonfor thisis because a female can recognize the scent ofher milkpassingthroughthe younganimal’s body.Thisalsohelpsthe animaltoaccept or reject differentyoung attemptingtonurse. Agonistic Behavior An animalwillalwaysprovidesome sortofreactionto the other animalsorhumansaroundit.Theywilloften eitherexhibitafight or flightreactionor aggressiveand passivebehavior.Anyofthese behaviorscanbe presentwhen physicalcontactis made withanother animaloreven a producer. Thisis typicallyhowanimalsinteractwithoneanotheraswell as how theyinteractwithpeople.Most ofthisbehaviorcanbe very dependentonhowan animal’sexperiencewitha previousstimulus, like handlingorbeingrestrained,turnedout. Males tendto showaggressivebehaviortowardsotherunfamiliar males. Thatis a probleminfarm managementbecausemales mustbe separatedduringbreedingseason.Once breedingseasonisover,they can possiblyberegroupedwith othermalesin a neutralarea.Keeping the malesseparatedcanbecome a very costlyprocesson the farmer. 7 It is necessaryto keep themales separatefor multiplereasons.Once theybeginfighting,theywill fight tillthe pointofexhaustioninmost cases.Theyare oftenfightingoverterritoryor females. Some usefultipsto helpkeep intactmales from becomingheatedisto introducethemto oneanotherinneutralterritory.Theyalso needto be broughttogetherearlyinthe morningor late inthe eveningwhen the temperaturesarelower. 4 Stages of EstablishingSocial Dominance 1. Offense – Themale is very aggressive,readyto fight 2. Defense – Themale realizesthatthe opposingmaleisstronger so he beginstryingto protecthimselfand preventinjury 3. Escape – The male hasno waythathe can nowwin thisfight so he backs downand runsaway;sufficientspace is neededto escape 4. Passivity– Themale thatbacked downfrom the fight willalways act passivelyto thestronger malethatwon the fight Unfamiliarmalesareconsideredto be defeatedoncetheychoose to escape andwill assumepassivebehavior. Females alsoestablishapeckingorderbutwill fight lessintensely. Unfamiliarsowswill sometimesfightwith oneanother.Ewes are very passiveandgenerallydo notfight.Thisallowsthem to be ableto be groupedwith strangers. Younganimalswhoare raisedwith theirown species learnallofthese aggressiveandpassivebehaviorsfromobservingthe socialbehaviorof theirherd. Ifan offspring’scaregiver isexhibitingdominantbehavior, the youngwill tendto mimicthatbehavior.Ifa young,intactmaleis isolatedfromthe rest ofthe herd,he mayattackthe persontryingto handlehim. Horned cows will generallyoutrankpolledcowsin terms of dominance.Cowsare typicallydehornedjusttopreventinjuryamong theirexhibiteraswell as theirherd. A bigdeterminationofsocialrankis theage, size, strength,experience in theherd,andgenetics ofthe animal. 8 Animalsthatfeedtogether usuallyconsumemorefoodthaniffed individually.Thisisa competitivenatureofthe animalsinorderto try to consumeas much foodas possiblesothe otheranimalsdon’teatit all.This can create a difficultsituationofanimalsinthelower ranks gettingtheirshareof feed.As a resultofthiscompetitivenature,the more dominantanimals,especiallyincows, willgive birthtoheavier offspring. Some females withwithdrawalthemselvesfrom theherd when they are gettingreadyto give birth.Theydo thismostlyfor privacyand protectivereasons.However, allanimalstendtowithdrawalwhen theyare sick. Youcan observe ananimal’sposturetohelpinterpretthemoodand intentofthatanimal.Animalswillshowa certaindispositionbasedon howtheyhavebeen previouslyhandledandwellas theirgenetic makeup.Some producerswill actuallycull (removeor send ananimal to slaughter)someanimalsbasedontheirdisposition.Thishelpsthem to reduce theexcitabilityoftheirherd,removea threatofinjury,and preventanykindofeconomicloss. How well ananimalhandlesisbasedontheir temperament,size, previoushandlingexperience,andthefacilitydesign.Animals remember bothpositiveandnegativeexperiences.Positive experienceswillmake theanimaleasierto handle.Usinga calm, quiet handlingtechniquewillcauseless stress inthe animalyouare handling.Itwill alsobe aneasier processif theanimalis acclimatedto peoplemovingquietly. Understandinghowananimalbehavesandreacts to different situationsandstimulicanpreventinjury,unduestress,andphysical exertionfor allthatare involved.Remember:your approach influenceshowtheyrespond. Ingestive Behavior 9 Thisis the behaviorthatisexhibitedwhenanimalseatanddrink. Ruminantswillswallowtheirfoodas soonas it is lubricatedwith saliva. Ruminate– regurgitatefeed for chewing (cud) Cattlecan have300-400 boluses(massofchewed food)/day Theydonot graze toofar awayfrom theirwater source. Theyalsotendto overgraze nearwater areas The fencingaroundthefacilityandothermanagementstrategiescan alterthe animal’sbehaviorandmovementpatterns. Ex.Placingsaltawayfrom water EliminativeBehavior Thisparticularbehaviorisdifferentamongcertainanimals. Cattle, sheep,goats,chickens willdefecate indiscriminately.Pigs tendto defecate inspecificareas ofthe pin.Horses will oftendefecate on otherhorse pilestocover uptheir scent. Theytendto defecate more frequentlywhentheyare stressedor excited.Livestock can losea minimumof3% oftheir liveweight when theyare beingtransported.The“shrink,”or weight loss usuallyoccurs duringthe firsthour oftransportation.Thiscanbe reducedbycareful handlingpracticesandreductionofstress. Shelter-Seeking Behavior Shelter-seekinghabitsisanotherfactorthatvaries betweenspecies.If the weatheris hot,cattle andsheepwill seekshelterin shadyareasfor rest andrumination.Pigsprefer more wet areas for theirshelterfrom the heat. If theweather is cold,pigs will crowd againstone anotherforwarmth. There havebeen instanceswherepigs will huddletogethersotightly thatsome ofthem willsmother.Trees can pose a threatin more dangerousweatherbecauselighteningcan strikethem. Investigative Behavior 10 Pigs, goats,andhorses alltendto be verycuriousanimals.Theywill investigatenewobjectsthatappeartopose nothreatto them. They usuallyapproachtheobjectcautiously,sniffingastheyget closer.That very sameobject mayinstillcuriosityorfear anothertimein that animaldependingonthe circumstances. Sheep tendto be more timid.Theyget excitedvery easilyandwill run awayfrom most anything. Allelomimetric Behavior Animalsofa specific speciestendto do thesame thingatthe same time. Theywillgraze, gatherat the wateringhole,followeach other, andruminatetogether. Thisis an effectiveway for producerstoobserve theirherd’sbehavior. It helpsthem to identifyanystrangebehaviorsor odditiesinthe group. Thisis alsovery usefulfor movinganimalsofa herd from oneplace or pasturetoanother. OtherBehaviors Communication–Informationexchangedbetweenindividualanimals Animalsdohavecommunicationbetweeneachother.Theycan communicatewiththe differentsenses such as sight,sound,and scent.Scent is the most commonform of communicationbetween animals. Maladaptivebehaviors–abnormalbehaviors Maladaptivebehaviorscanarisefrom poormanagementpracticesof the animals. Pigs andswine are two speciesthatneed plentyofspace intheir pins. If theyare too crowded,theycan begin to exhibitcannibalismand each othermembers oftheirgroups. Horses are creatures thatneedplentyofspace androom to move. Theydon’tlikebeingkept ina stallthatis barelybigger thantheyare allthe time. Theycan beginto start“cribbing”or otherstallvices. 11 Cribbing– aninjuringhabitwhere a horsebitesonto differentpartsofthe stall,breathesin,andswallowsair. Thisprocess actuallyreleasesendorphinsinthehorse’s brainmuch likethatof a personusinghardnarcotics. These habitsinhorsesare much easierto preventthantheyare to break. 12 ANSC 1000Lecture 7 9-2-16 Animal Welfare Definitions Cruelty– showingindifferencetoor pleasureinanother’spain or suffering;cruelty,neglect,andabusecan occur at the same time;one doesnot outweightheother Neglect – failingto provideananimalwithvitalrequirementssuchas food,water, or shelter;thismaybe intentionalorunintentional Abuse– willfullystrikingor harmingan animal Deprivation–limitingananimal’saccess to one or more basicneeds such as water, food,shelter,movement,socialinteraction,etc. Speciesism– A prejudiceor biastowardthe interestofmembersof one’sown species. Vivisection– actionofoperatingor experimentingonliveanimals. Anthropomorphism–attributinghumanemotions,needs,thoughts, behaviors,ormotivationstoanimals;ananimal’sneedsmaynotbe the same as ours;it is importanttorememberto knowwhat the animalneedsandtreatthem basedontheir needsnotours Continuumof Beliefs Beliefs Animal Exploitation Animalsexistsolelyfor humanuse. Activitiesor proceduresthatcausepainor deathare acceptableunder allcircumstances. Theyoftenpromoteandparticipateinactivitiesthatareillegalin manyareassuch as dogfighting,cock fighting,“canned”hunts,etc. Cannedhunt– ananimalkeptin a cage andreleasedintoa smallarea in orderto hunt. 13 Theybelievethattheycan do whatever theywantwith animalsand it’s notwrong. Animal Use Animalsexistprimarilyforhumanuse. Man hasa responsibilitytocare for andmanage animalsina waythat minimizesanypainsandsuffering. Theyfocus onenforcingexistinganimalwelfarelaws. Theyare advocatesinfavor ofhunting,fishing,zoos,rodeos,livestock production,etc. We shouldmakesure the animalisbeingcared for butwe can stilldo mostlywhat we wantwith them. Animal Control Theystriveto enforce laws affectinganimal useandwelfare. Peoplebehindthisare usuallygovernmentagenciesor organizations. Theyare bigadvocatesfor spayingandneuteringofpets. These groupssupportanimaluseinresearch. Theythinkit’sokayto huntas longas rules andregulationsare followed. Animal Welfare Humanshavea dutyto ensureanimalsare cared for in a humane manner. Caretakersare responsibleforbeingpro-activein addressingpotential healthandphysicalissuesofanimals. Theybelievethatwe havea dutyto make surethat animalsare maintainedaswellas possible. Theyencouragethe enforcementofexistinglaws andstandards,push for newlaws,andfight for changes in existinglawsto be made when deficienciesare found. Theybelievethatwe shouldactivelyprovidecare for animalssuffering from neglect and/orabuse. 14 These groupsare supportersofspaying,neutering,andeuthanization ofanimals. We shouldminimizetheamountofsufferingas much as possible. Animal Welfare – AVMA Definition How ananimalcopes withits livingconditions. The animalshouldbe“healthy,comfortable,well-nourished,safe,and ableto expressinnatebehavior.” The animalsshouldnotbesufferingfrom “unpleasantstatessuchas pain,fear, or distress.” Proper animalwelfarerequiresveterinarytreatment,disease prevention,humanehandling,appropriateshelter,management, nutrition,andhumanslaughter. Peopleare responsibleforensuringtheanimalsreceiveallthe proper care. The AVMA definitionisalittleinaccuratebecauseeveryone’s definitionsofthosewords are different It is our responsibilityasmanagerstoensurethatwe are providingall the necessarycare. Animal Rights Animalsshouldhavethesamerights as humans andequalstanding underthe law. These peopleareopposedtothe useof animalsforsport,research, humanconsumption,oranyotherpurposethatbenefitshumans. Theyfocus onlobbyingfor laws tolimitor eliminatehumanuseof animals. Groupsthatfallunderthiscategoryare the Human Societyofthe UnitedStates(HSUS), People for the EthicalTreatmentofAnimals (PETA),andMercy for Animals. Peoplethatsupportthisare opposedofthe useof animalsfor entertainmentsuchaszoos,circuses,etc. Theybelievepetsand service animalsarenotokay. 15 HSUS has noaffiliationwithlocalhumanesocieties. Animal Rights – PETADefinition “Animalrightsmeans thatanimalsdeservecertainkindsofconsideration – considerationofwhat is intheir bestinterests,regardlessofwhetherthey are ‘cute’, usefulto humans,oran endangeredspeciesandregardlessof whetheranyhumancares aboutthemat all(just as a mentallychallenged humanhasrights even ifhe or she is notcute or usefulor even ifeveryone dislikeshimor her). It means recognizing that animals arenot ours to use – for food,clothing, entertainment,orexperimentation.” Animal Liberation No animalsshouldbeowned,used,or possessedbya humanfor any purpose. These groupssupporttheuseof violenceinorder to achieve total animalliberation. Some ofthese groups,such as the AnimalLiberationFront(ALF),are classifiedbytheFBI as domesticterroristorganizations. These groupsare extremists. Theyhavebeen knownto burnbuildingscontainingresearchlabsand even murderresearch scientists. PETA fundsthe ALF. PublicPerception ofAnimal Agriculture Beef Swine Dairy Poultry Horses Handling Gestration Lameness Housing/cages Training techniques crates Techniques Castration Housing Calfhousing Debeaking Housing Dehorning Transport TailDocking Forced Molting Performance injuries Transport TailDocking Production Transport Transport Techniques Harvest Harvest Transport Harvest Harvest 16 Societal Values Influence Welfare Standards “As society evolves,the sense of ethicschanges. We must be careful tonot impose our standards on people who live inconditions worse than the best of our animals.” How we feel aboutanimalsisbasedonourbackground. We haveto understandtheindustrybeforewe can talkabout improvingit. 17
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