Week 11 Notes - Nutrition 101
Week 11 Notes - Nutrition 101 Nutrition 101
Popular in Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Patterson on Thursday March 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nutrition 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Lori Greene in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see Nutrition 101-001 Intro Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/26/15
Minerals 3231532515 Week 11 Minerals Inorganic elements Cannot be destroyed Minerals can be lost Variable bioavailability Major Minerals greater amounts in body need to consume more calcium phosphorus potassium sulfur sodium chloride magnesium Trace what you find in the body iron zinc copper manganese iodine selenium Sodium FuncUon 0 Primary electrolyte in extracellular fluid 0 Responsible for maintaining fluid balance 0 Maintain acidbase balance in the body 0 Involved in nerve transmission and muscle contractions Metabolism o Kidneys filter sodium out of the blood Amount excreted should equal the amount ingested When blood sodium rises thirst signals encourage drinking Kidneys then excrete both excess water and sodium RDA or AI 0 AI for 1050 years old 1500 mgday 0 Dietary guidelines 2020 recommend no more than 1500 mg NA for AA older adults and those who already have hypertension Upper Limit 2300 mgday Food Sources processed foods table salt occurs naturally in some foods Deficiency 0 Rare 0 Blood sodium may drop with vomiting diarrhea or heavy sweating 0 Symptoms are muscle cramps and confusion Toxicity common cause edema and high blood pressure Chloride Function 0 Maintains fluid and electrolyte balance 0 Part of hydrochloric acid 0 Helps to maintain acidity of the stomach AI 2300 mgday Upper Limit 3600 mgday Food Sources abundant in foods as part of NaCI 34 tsp of NaCI meets for both Na and CI Deficiency none Toxicity none Vomiting chronic diarrhea and heavy may cause excessive loss of chloride Potassium Function maintains fluid and electrolyte balance AI 4700 mgday Minerals 3231532515 Week 11 Upper Limit none Food sources whole foods meats milk fruits vegetables grains legumes Deficiency 0 High blood pressure 0 Salt sensitivity 0 Kidney stones 0 High burn turnover Toxicity over consumption of potassium supplements kidneys accelerate excretion Cak un1 FuncUon 0 Most abundant mineral in the body Bone and teeth small amount in body fluids 0 Bones are continuously gaining and losing minerals 0 Bones provide a bank of calcium for the blood Metabolism 0 Adults absorb about 30 of Ca ingested 0 Infants teens and pregnant women absorb more 0 Vitamin D supports absorption and deficiency impairs it 0 Fiber phytates and oxalates interfere with absorption RDA or AI 0 RDA for adults and older men 5170 1000 mgday o RDA for men over 70 1200 mgday o RDA for women over 50 1200 mgday o RDA for adolescents 1300 mgday 0 Most intakes are too low Upper Limit 2500 mgday Food sources milk and milk products vegetables greens broccoli spinach tofu almonds Deficiency 0 Limits peak bone mass or weakens bones Peak bone mass is reached by 30yo Bone loss typically occurs between 3040 Excess bone loss can cause fractures due to osteopenia or osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a silent disease Toxicity none Phosphorus FuncUon 0 Second most abundant mineral in the body 0 Found in bones teeth and all body cells 0 Assists in energy metabolism ATP 0 Provide structure to phospholipids 0 Transport for lipids and component of cell membranes RDA 700 mgday Upper Limit 4000 mgday Food Sources animal foods meat fish poultry eggs and milk Deficiency unlikely Minerals 3231532515 Week 11 Toxicity none Magnesium Iron Zinc FuncUon Found in the body in bones 50 muscles and tissues Helps to maintain bone health Important part of energy metabolism Muscle contractions and blood clotting Supports normal function of the immune system RDA for men 400 mgday for women 310 mgday Upper Limit 350 mgday from nonfood sources Food Sources nuts and legumes whole grains dark green vegetables seafood chocolate and cocoa Deficiency 0 May affect bone metabolism 0 Inflammation leading to heart disease hypertension and DM 0 May contribute to high blood pressure Toxicity none 0 O O O O FuncUon Cofactor to many enzymes 0 Iron helps to accept carry and release oxygen 0 Found primarily in 2 proteins hyoglobin and myoglobin Iron Absorption more is absorbed when stores are low vitamin C enhances absorption RDA for men 8 mgday for women of child bearing age 18 mgday for women over 50 8 mgday Upper Limit 45 mgday Food Sources 0 Heme Iron 25 o absorbed Red meats fish poultry eggs legumes nuts and seeds dried fruits iron fortified foods Nonheme iron 17 o absorbed is found in both plants and animal sources Deficiency 0 Most common nutrient deficiency Primarily preschoolers adolescent girls and pregnant women Women more prone to deficiency due to menses Iron deficiency depleted iron stores Iron deficiency anemia severe depletion that results in low Hgb Symptoms include fatigue weakness headaches Iron supplementation of ferrous sulfate 0 Pica Toxicity none 0 0 000000 FuncUon 0 Part of many enzymes Mine rals 3231532515 Week 11 Involved in making genetic material and proteins Assists defenses to fight against free radical attacks Wound healing Sperm production and fetal development RDA for men 11 mgday for women 8 mgday Upper Limit 40 mgday Food Sources red meats poultry and shellfish whole grains Deficiency causes growth retardation impairs immune response damages central nervous system slows wound healing Toxicity none OOOO Iodine Function part of two thyroid hormones that help regulate growth development and metabolic rate RDA or AI none Upper Limit none Food Sources iodized salt seafood bread dairy products Deficiency cause goiter can eventually lead to brain damage Toxicity none Fluoride Function critical for healthy bones and teeth helps teeth resist decay RDA or AI none Upper Limit none Food Sources drinking water fluoridated tea seafood Deficiency none Toxicity fluorosis Selenium Cop Function key antioxidant nutrient helps to prevent free radicalformation RDA or AI none Upper Limit none Food Sources associated with protein in foods seafood meat whole grains fruits and vegetables influenced by soil content Deficiency Keshan disease heart disease that is prevalent in China where foods and soil lack selenium Toxicity none per Function part of several enzymes that are involved in reactions that consume oxygen antioxidants necessary part of the absorption and use of iron in making hemoglobin RDA or AI none Upper Limit none Food Sources seafood nuts grains legumes seeds Deficiency anemia bone abnormalities Toxicity liver disease Manganese Minerals 3231532515 Week 11 Function acts as a cofactor for many enzymes bone formation RDA or AI none Upper Limit none Food Sources nuts whole grains leafy vegetables tea Deficiency none Toxicity none Chromium Function enhances insulin action may improve glucose tolerance RDA or AI none Upper Limit none Food Sources unrefined foods are best whole grains Deficiency none Toxicity none
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