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General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016)

by: Lindsey Notetaker

General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) CHEM121A

Marketplace > University of Nevada - Las Vegas > Chemistry > CHEM121A > General Chemistry I Week 1 Notes August 29 2016
Lindsey Notetaker

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These notes include extra notes the professor said while going over his PowerPoint, textbook notes that I took while reading the corresponding chapter, and the vocabulary that is in the book that w...
General Chemistry 1
Dr. Berg
Class Notes
Chemistry, matter, measurements




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM121A at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Berg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) Chapter 1: Public Health­politic, science, and preventions Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take  from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with  definitions will be the last sections! (:  Lecture Notes  Chemistry overlaps with ALL other sciences  It is the study of matter  The most important elements to know are 1­36 The most common elements that are made of two or more of the SAME elements are: o H2 (Hydrogen) o N2 (Nitrogen)  o O2 (Oxygen)  o F2 (Fluorine)  o Cl2  (Chlorine) o B2 (Bromine)  o I2 (Iodine) o P4 (Phosphorus) o S8 (Sulfur)   Molecular and empirical formulas are not always the same  o Molecular tells how many of each element and empirical tells the number but in  reduced forms   Structural formulas tells how something is bounded   History notes from what he said in class o Egyptian chemistry was applied chemistry  o Greek chemistry was philosophical   Thought it was made of 4 main elements   Earth   Water   Wind   Fire o Alchemy were trying to make metals into gold   Also wanted to find the elixir to life   A magic potion that would let them live forever  o German Paracelsus was the greatest and start of modern medicine       Scientific method is what allowed to start more advanced civilization   o Making an observation and questioning it  o Developing law  Simple statement of something that happens over and over again o Write a hypothesis   Hypothesis is a speculated guess or an educated guess  Page 1 of 6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) o Propose a theory  Explain what is already know and should predict the results  o Do experiment  If the theory does not work then it goes back up the steps to fix it   Only 3 countries do not use the SI units   When writing units use a dot to indicate multiplying   Cubit is the distance between an atom  Mass is constant as weight is NOT  o Weight depends on gravitational pull or force  1 decameter cubed = 1 liter so therefore, 1 centimeter cubed = 1 milliliter   Specified gravity is same as density just without units   ALWAYS CHECK UNITS TO SEE IF YOU NEED TO CONVERT THEM  Heat flows down  All gasses explicate at ­273.15 degrees Celsius  o Kelvin is the SI unit for temperature which has absolute zero at ­273.15 degrees  Celsius Textbook Notes  Chemistry is center for all sciences   EVERYTHING is made up of matter   one small difference in the composition could be a huge difference in properties    Looks at the macroscopic realm and submicroscopic realm o  Macroscopic is the ordinary sized objects  o Submicroscopic is atoms and molecule Solid  Liquid  Gas Arrangement of Packed closely  Not as packed  Spread out atoms  Speed of Can wiggle but not Move rapidly and High speed with molecules  much can slide past others constant collisions Volume  Fixed Fixed Not fixed Shape  Fixed Not fixed Not fixed  90% of earth’s crust is made up of 5 elements  o Oxygen o Silicon  o Aluminum  o Iron Page 2 of 6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) o Calcium  90% of the human body is made up of 3 elements  o Carbon o Oxygen o Hydrogen  Science is discovered through curiosity and wanting to know why  No theory is 100% true   There are 7 base units for SI Physical property Name of unit Abbreviation Mass Kilogram Kg Length Meter M Time Second S or Sec Temperature  Kelvin K Amount of substance Mole Mol Electric current  Ampere  A or amp Luminous intensity  Candela Cd  Mass does NOT equal weight  Equations to know o K= C degrees (Celsius) +273.15 o C degrees =(5/9)(F degrees (Fahrenheit) ­32) o  F degrees = (9/5)( C degrees) +32 o Density = mass/volume   Density is temperature dependent so should state temperature with density   If not temperature is stated then assume room temperature which is 23 C degrees  The more significant figures mean the more precision  Weight on earth depends on the mass of the object, the mass of earth, and distance of the  object from the center of earth  Notes from Berg’s handouts o Historians believed that alchemy provided the basis for science of chemistry   Developed around the same time in China, India, and Greece o Earth believed to be made of 5 elements and was functioned by opposing forces   Earth  Wind  Water    Fire  Space o European alchemist wanted to change metals to silver or gold   Also wanted to create the elixir to life to live forever   No evidence that it ever happened  o Last great alchemist was Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim  Page 3 of6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016)  Called Paracelsus and known as father of modern medicine  Wanted to cure diseases and convinced other physicians to use natural and synthetic drugs for illness  Discovered coal mining was associated with lung disease   Noted head injuries produced paralysis   Correctly diagnosed that an abnormal thyroid cause mental and physical  retardation  Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical   Chemistry: the scientific discipline that studies the composition, properties, and  transformation of matter  Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass, the physical material of the universe   Property: a characteristic that gives a sample of matter its unique identity  Element: a substance consisting of atoms of the same atomic number. Historically  defined as a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical  means  Atom: the smallest representative particle of an element   Physical Property: properties that can be measured without changing the composition of a substance, for example, color and freezing point   Chemical Property: properties that describe a substance’s composition and its reactivity; how the substance reacts or changes into other substances   State of Matter: the three forms that matter can assume; gas, liquid, and solid  Gas: matter that has no fixed volume and shape; it conforms the volume and shape of its  container   Liquid: matter that has a distinct volume but no specific  shape  Solid: matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume  Pure Substance: matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties  Mixture: a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its  own chemical identity   Compound: a substance composed of two or more elements united chemically in definite proportions  Page 4 of 6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016)  Law of Constant Composition: a law that states that the element composition of a pure  substance is always the same, regardless of its source; also called the law of distinct  properties  Solution: a mixture of substances that has a uniform composition, a homogeneous  mixture   Intensive Property: a property that is independent of the amount of material considered,  for example, density   Extensive Property: a property that depends on the amount of material considered, for  example, mass or volume   Physical Change: changes (such as a phase change) that occur with no change in  chemical composition   Changes of State: transformation of matter from one state to a different one, for example from a gas to a liquid   Chemical Change: process in which one or more substances are converted into other  substances, also called chemical reactants  Metric System: a system of measurements used in science and in most countries. The  meter and the gram are examples of metric units   Hypothesis: a tentative explanation of a series of observations or of a natural law   Theory: a tested model or explanation that satisfactory accounts for a certain set of  phenomena  Scientific Method: the general process of advancing scientific knowledge by making  experimental observations and by formulating hypotheses, theories, and laws  Scientific Law: a concise verbal statement or a mathematical equation that summarizes a wide range of observations and experiences   SI Units: the preferred metric units for use in science   Celsius Scale: a temperature scale on which at water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees  Kelvin Scale: the absolute temperature scale; the SI unit for temperature is the Kelvin.  Zero on the Kelvin scale corresponds to ­273.15 degrees Celsius  Absolute Zero: the lowest attainable temperature; 0 on the Kelvin scale and ­273.15  degrees Celsius on the Celsius scale   Density: the ratio of an object’s mass to its volume  Accuracy: a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct  value  Page 5 of 6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016)  Precision: the closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement  Significant Figures: the digits that indicate the precision with which a measurement is  made; all digits of a measured quantity are significant, including the last digit, which is  uncertain  Dimensional Analysis: a method of problem solving in which units are carried through  all calculations. Dimensional analysis ensures that the final answer of a calculation has  the desired units   Page 6 of 6


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