General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016)
General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) CHEM121A
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM121A at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Berg in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) Chapter 1: Public Healthpolitic, science, and preventions Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with definitions will be the last sections! (: Lecture Notes Chemistry overlaps with ALL other sciences It is the study of matter The most important elements to know are 136 The most common elements that are made of two or more of the SAME elements are: o H2 (Hydrogen) o N2 (Nitrogen) o O2 (Oxygen) o F2 (Fluorine) o Cl2 (Chlorine) o B2 (Bromine) o I2 (Iodine) o P4 (Phosphorus) o S8 (Sulfur) Molecular and empirical formulas are not always the same o Molecular tells how many of each element and empirical tells the number but in reduced forms Structural formulas tells how something is bounded History notes from what he said in class o Egyptian chemistry was applied chemistry o Greek chemistry was philosophical Thought it was made of 4 main elements Earth Water Wind Fire o Alchemy were trying to make metals into gold Also wanted to find the elixir to life A magic potion that would let them live forever o German Paracelsus was the greatest and start of modern medicine Scientific method is what allowed to start more advanced civilization o Making an observation and questioning it o Developing law Simple statement of something that happens over and over again o Write a hypothesis Hypothesis is a speculated guess or an educated guess Page 1 of 6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) o Propose a theory Explain what is already know and should predict the results o Do experiment If the theory does not work then it goes back up the steps to fix it Only 3 countries do not use the SI units When writing units use a dot to indicate multiplying Cubit is the distance between an atom Mass is constant as weight is NOT o Weight depends on gravitational pull or force 1 decameter cubed = 1 liter so therefore, 1 centimeter cubed = 1 milliliter Specified gravity is same as density just without units ALWAYS CHECK UNITS TO SEE IF YOU NEED TO CONVERT THEM Heat flows down All gasses explicate at 273.15 degrees Celsius o Kelvin is the SI unit for temperature which has absolute zero at 273.15 degrees Celsius Textbook Notes Chemistry is center for all sciences EVERYTHING is made up of matter one small difference in the composition could be a huge difference in properties Looks at the macroscopic realm and submicroscopic realm o Macroscopic is the ordinary sized objects o Submicroscopic is atoms and molecule Solid Liquid Gas Arrangement of Packed closely Not as packed Spread out atoms Speed of Can wiggle but not Move rapidly and High speed with molecules much can slide past others constant collisions Volume Fixed Fixed Not fixed Shape Fixed Not fixed Not fixed 90% of earth’s crust is made up of 5 elements o Oxygen o Silicon o Aluminum o Iron Page 2 of 6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) o Calcium 90% of the human body is made up of 3 elements o Carbon o Oxygen o Hydrogen Science is discovered through curiosity and wanting to know why No theory is 100% true There are 7 base units for SI Physical property Name of unit Abbreviation Mass Kilogram Kg Length Meter M Time Second S or Sec Temperature Kelvin K Amount of substance Mole Mol Electric current Ampere A or amp Luminous intensity Candela Cd Mass does NOT equal weight Equations to know o K= C degrees (Celsius) +273.15 o C degrees =(5/9)(F degrees (Fahrenheit) 32) o F degrees = (9/5)( C degrees) +32 o Density = mass/volume Density is temperature dependent so should state temperature with density If not temperature is stated then assume room temperature which is 23 C degrees The more significant figures mean the more precision Weight on earth depends on the mass of the object, the mass of earth, and distance of the object from the center of earth Notes from Berg’s handouts o Historians believed that alchemy provided the basis for science of chemistry Developed around the same time in China, India, and Greece o Earth believed to be made of 5 elements and was functioned by opposing forces Earth Wind Water Fire Space o European alchemist wanted to change metals to silver or gold Also wanted to create the elixir to life to live forever No evidence that it ever happened o Last great alchemist was Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim Page 3 of6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) Called Paracelsus and known as father of modern medicine Wanted to cure diseases and convinced other physicians to use natural and synthetic drugs for illness Discovered coal mining was associated with lung disease Noted head injuries produced paralysis Correctly diagnosed that an abnormal thyroid cause mental and physical retardation Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical Chemistry: the scientific discipline that studies the composition, properties, and transformation of matter Matter: anything that occupies space and has mass, the physical material of the universe Property: a characteristic that gives a sample of matter its unique identity Element: a substance consisting of atoms of the same atomic number. Historically defined as a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means Atom: the smallest representative particle of an element Physical Property: properties that can be measured without changing the composition of a substance, for example, color and freezing point Chemical Property: properties that describe a substance’s composition and its reactivity; how the substance reacts or changes into other substances State of Matter: the three forms that matter can assume; gas, liquid, and solid Gas: matter that has no fixed volume and shape; it conforms the volume and shape of its container Liquid: matter that has a distinct volume but no specific shape Solid: matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume Pure Substance: matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties Mixture: a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity Compound: a substance composed of two or more elements united chemically in definite proportions Page 4 of 6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) Law of Constant Composition: a law that states that the element composition of a pure substance is always the same, regardless of its source; also called the law of distinct properties Solution: a mixture of substances that has a uniform composition, a homogeneous mixture Intensive Property: a property that is independent of the amount of material considered, for example, density Extensive Property: a property that depends on the amount of material considered, for example, mass or volume Physical Change: changes (such as a phase change) that occur with no change in chemical composition Changes of State: transformation of matter from one state to a different one, for example from a gas to a liquid Chemical Change: process in which one or more substances are converted into other substances, also called chemical reactants Metric System: a system of measurements used in science and in most countries. The meter and the gram are examples of metric units Hypothesis: a tentative explanation of a series of observations or of a natural law Theory: a tested model or explanation that satisfactory accounts for a certain set of phenomena Scientific Method: the general process of advancing scientific knowledge by making experimental observations and by formulating hypotheses, theories, and laws Scientific Law: a concise verbal statement or a mathematical equation that summarizes a wide range of observations and experiences SI Units: the preferred metric units for use in science Celsius Scale: a temperature scale on which at water freezes at 0 degrees and boils at 100 degrees Kelvin Scale: the absolute temperature scale; the SI unit for temperature is the Kelvin. Zero on the Kelvin scale corresponds to 273.15 degrees Celsius Absolute Zero: the lowest attainable temperature; 0 on the Kelvin scale and 273.15 degrees Celsius on the Celsius scale Density: the ratio of an object’s mass to its volume Accuracy: a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with the correct value Page 5 of 6 General Chemistry I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) Precision: the closeness of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement Significant Figures: the digits that indicate the precision with which a measurement is made; all digits of a measured quantity are significant, including the last digit, which is uncertain Dimensional Analysis: a method of problem solving in which units are carried through all calculations. Dimensional analysis ensures that the final answer of a calculation has the desired units Page 6 of 6
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