Genetics: Aug. 22-Sept 2
Genetics: Aug. 22-Sept 2 BIOL 3250
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3250 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Mohamed Salem in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Genetics: August 22 -September 2nd nd Applications of Why to Study Genetics: • everyone has genes (23,000; 23 pairs of chromosomes) • biomedical field is leaning towards sequencing genomes to produce specific medicines • Human Genome Project- started 1990 o goal: to decode genome- all of DNA found within all chromosomes (about 3 billion nucleotides) o first published sequence was released in 2003 o first one took three years and cost billions; now can be done in less than a week and costs less than $1000; shows how far we’ve come in the past 13 years o Main Question: How do defective genes cause disease? • Requires multiple fields; Bioformatics: computer science, statistics, and biology DNA • Deoxyribonucleic acid wraps around proteins which forms chromosomes • DNA can form proteins, which are the workers of the cell, through translation (DNA à (via RNA polymerase) mRNA à (via tRNA) amino acids, which make up proteins • Mapping human genome requires knowing every location of genes within chromosomes o Cracking the Code of Life: notice the different organizations did this in a different manner • How long is all of the DNA in our body combined? o Each strand of DNA is 6 ft. o 37.2 trillion cells in the human body o 223.2 trillion feet of DNA in the human body (equal to 70 trips from the sun and back; the distance from earth to Pluto) Controversial Genetic Technologies -Knowledge of genetic specifics in individuals may lead to negative effects • DNA Fingerprinting- largely in question, but now more well-accepted • Mammalian cloning o First mammal cloned- Ian Wilmut et al.- Dolly the sheep; 1997 o Fears that this will be applied to humans led to legislative bands on human cloning Genetic Technologies • Can allow for modifying animals in various ways o ex. process for mice to glow green, used as a tracer to identify genes Chapter 1: The Relationship Between Genes and Traits • Interdisciplinary study of heredity and variation within biology • Gene- segment of DNA that produces a functional product such as a polypeptide o Only 1%-2% of genes code for proteins o Genes provide the blueprint that leads to traits within organisms; traits are the characteristics • Living cells are composed of biochemicals o Nucleic acids, proteins, and carbohydrates are all macromolecules; polymers constructed from monomers DNA Stores Information for Protein Synthesis • DNA contained in large structures called chromosomes (DNA and proteins) • DNA is a polymer of nucleotides, which contains nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine); sequence stores information to form proteins o Types of proteins: § Structural: tubulin- forms microtubules, which play a role in shape and movement § Contractile: myosin- muscle contraction § Hormonal: insulin- regulates glucose blood levels § Enzymes- accelerate chemical reactions; catalyst • Catabolic- help break down molecules; provide energy • Anabolic- help synthesize molecules; provides components o Genetic Code- directs order of amino acid base code Gene Expression • Expression: when information in DNA is accessed o Transcription: genetic code is copied into RNA o Translation: sequence of RNA uses genetic code to make amino acid sequence for protein Traits are Visible Due to DNA • Morphological- appearance • Physiological- functions of organism • Behavioral- way organism responds to environment • 4 Levels of Biological Organization: o Molecular- genes expressed o Cellular- proteins function o Organism- traits can be observed o Population- genes and traits within a species can be studied Genetic Variation • Differences in inherited traits • Morphs- different forms within a species • Due to changes in DNA including: o Gene mutations o Changes in chromosome structure o Changes in chromosome number § Ex. down syndrome- extra copy of chromosome 21 • Also due to effects of environment • Reproduction is when parents pass genes to offspring, which enhances genetic variation • Genetic composition of a species evolves o Genetic diversity o Natural selection o Time Fields of Genetics • Transmission- shows inheritance patterns as passed through offspring; ex. Mendel • Molecular- biochemical approach; very big with technological advances • Population- focuses on genetic variation and evolution Chapter 3: Reproduction and Chromosome Transmission • Chromosomes are made of two sister chromatids • Chromosomes exist in cytoplasm of prokaryote cells; in nucleus in eukaryotic cells • Cytogenetics- form of studying chromosomes to find abnormalities o Karyotyping- way to track genetic abnormalities by ‘typing the nucleus’ § Cells are injected with … • Eukaryotic chromosomes are inherited in sets; most species are diploid o Homologous chromosomes- pair of similar chromosomes • Locus- physical location of gene on its chromosome Cell Division • Cells must divide because the there is a very specific surface area : volume of the cell ratio o Important for cell transport of food and oxygen, which allows the cell to survive • Eukaryotes require a more complicated process than simple binary fission to reproduce • Mitosis o Goes through stages known as the cell cycle: