New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology and Learning (1st lecture)

by: Camille Figuereo

Biology and Learning (1st lecture) Biology 115

Marketplace > Rutgers University > Biology > Biology 115 > Biology and Learning 1st lecture
Camille Figuereo
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Biology 115

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Biology 115 notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These are the notes from the first lecture covering how the brain learns and memorizes
Biology 115
Dr. Stern Cardinale
Class Notes




Popular in Biology 115

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camille Figuereo on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 115 at Rutgers University taught by Dr. Stern Cardinale in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biology 115 in Biology at Rutgers University.


Reviews for Biology and Learning (1st lecture)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/02/16
Biology and Learning (1st lecture) Updated Sep 9, 2016 Memory and learning neurons: The human body is made up of trillions of cells. Cells of the nervous system, called nerve cells or neurons, are specialized to carry "messages" through an electrochemical process. The human brain has approximately 100 billion neurons. supporting cells: They provide support and protection, they just makes sure everything is working. -neurons receive signals and send signals (kind of like the cells aretalking to each other) Neuronal Development -overall structure of nervous system is established during development (embryonic and post-birth... up until early 20s) -Gene expression and signal transduction are involved in development of nervous system ~Gene expression: the flow of genetic information from gene to protein ~Signal Transduction: is the transmission of molecular signals from a cell's exterior to its interior. Signals received by cells must be transmitted effectively into the cell to ensure an appropriate response. -neuronal plasticity: ability of nervous system to be modified after birth -Brain is dynamic, changeable -most modeling occurs at synapses -Synapse(s): Information from one neuron flows to another neuron across a synapse. -changes in the brain are activity dependent (much like muscle memory where you do something so often that your brain remembers it) -autism appears in early childhood(display impaired communication and social interaction, repetitive behaviors——may involve disruption in activity-dependent remodeling at synapses) Memory -memory:process in which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Anatomical/physiological event occurring at synapses -dependent on neuronal plasticity and activity -short term memory(STM) or working memory: info stored for a short time (seconds to minutes) or memory released or not used. -long term memory(LTM): activated when info needs to be retained…retrieved back into STM when needed -memory and learning are not the same..learning is the use of knowledge/experiences(memory) to decrease likelihood of negative outcome (one does better as a result of learning) -encoding: process of going from one memory to another (STM to LTM) -Long term potentiation(LTP): is a persistent strengthening of synapses based on recent patterns of activity. These are patterns of synaptic activity that produce a long-lasting increase in signal transmission between two neurons. -LTP facilitates memory and retrieval (better able to retrieve info for example like during an exam you can just pull the information out of your head without having to think too much about it) -LTP is activity dependent and the learner needs to use info -use of info is a sorting process (info is used=important so info is retained……info is not used=not important so info is put away like spam) -sensory memory storage (shorter than STM super short duration- milliseconds to seconds) if you don’t do something with it within those seconds it will be gone -SMS->encoding->STM->encoding->LTM(retrieve it back to use it in your short term memorizing) -LTP is facilitated by organization ——meaningful associations aid in memory formation -organizer: flow charts, tables. outlines etc. -Chunking: learning sets of related info instead of just one thing at a time (helps get info into memory and aids in retrieval) stimulus->sensory memory->short term memory->long term memory(the goal is long term memory) sources: Add a save button to the internet Get Web Clipper Terms of Service Privacy Policy


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.