Anatomy Week 1 Notes
Anatomy Week 1 Notes REHSCI 1200
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Martin on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to REHSCI 1200 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Karthik Hariharan in Fall2013. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
August 29, 2016 Introduction to Anatomy Anatomy itself can be looked at in different ways o Gross Anatomy (most emphasis in this course) o Study of structures that can be examined without the use of a microscope o Looking at, naming, saying what actions a muscle does o Surface Anatomy (use most as rehab provider) o Study of anatomical landmarks in the surface of the body through visualization and palpation o Need to know what anatomical structure causes pain in that area o Radiographic Anatomy o The study of structures with the use of x-rays o Developmental Anatomy o Study of human development from fertilized egg to adult form o after fertilization occurs and how layers of cells form a baby o Embryology o Study of human development from fertilized egg to 8 week in the uterus o How fertilization occurs and how an embryo is formed o Histology o Microscopic study of the structure of tissues o Used in microbiology, different systems of the body at a cellular level Approaches to studying anatomy o Systemic Anatomy Study of the body by systems o Regional Anatomy Regionalizing the entire human body o Clinical Anatomy Emphasizes structure and function as it relates to the practice of medicine and other health sciences Levels of Body Organization o Chemical Level Atoms, how oxygen is used, etc. o Cellular Level Molecules that come together to form a cell o Tissue Level Cells that come together that form a tissue o Organ Level Tissues that come together to form organs (muscles) o Systems Organs come to together to form organ systems o Organism Organ systems interact with each other to form an entire human being Systems of the body o Integumentary System Skin and the associated structures One of the most widely spread systems Protector of the human body from the external environment Regulates body temperature Receives stimuli such as temperature, pain, pressure, etc o Skeletal System All your bones and joints in your body Associated with the articular system Provides a lot of structure to the human body Protects internal organs o Articular System Involves joints between two different bones Different specialized tissues involved (ligaments) o Muscular System Different types of muscles and muscle fibers in your body Smooth Muscles: form walls over veins and arteries, not voluntary muscles (unable to contract) Skeletal Muscles: voluntary muscles that move your body Cardiac Muscles: involuntary muscles, pumps blood throughout your body o Nervous System Consist of brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory organs Most important in sustaining life o Cardiovascular System Important for supplying blood, oxygen, and nutrition to different parts of body o Lymphatic System Maintains immunity in your body Contains plasma and protein of blood o Respiratory System Most important function is to oxygenate your blood o Digestive System Prepares food to be broken down in different nutrients to share throughout body Small intestine is where all the absorption of nutrients happen Large intestine is where wasteful products are excreted o Urinary System Filters your blood to absorb the nutrients needed and excrete the nutrients not needed via urine Maintains water and electrolytes o Reproductive system Active male organ: testes, prostate Active female organ: ovaries, uterus o Endocrine System Most widely spread systems Regulates different systems throughout the body through producing hormones Anatomical Positions o Head, eyes, toes, and palms are facing forward (anteriorly) o Baseline position for any measures and points of references o Joints of upper and lower extremities are at 0 degrees of extension/flexion and abduction/adduction Planes of Motion o Median Mid-point of the sagittal plane through the middle divides body into equal left and right halves o Sagittal Runs parallel to the Median Movements are: Flexion/extension Abduction/adduction Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion o Frontal What you’re looking at when you’re looking at someone Most important movements are abduction(movement away)/adduction(movement toward) o Transverse Plane Plane you see from above All rotations occur on this plane Divides body into superior and anterior Axes of Motion o Coronal Allows motion on the sagittal plane Perpendicular to sagittal plane o Anterior-posterior Motion in the frontal plane o Longitudinal Allows motion in the transverse plane Comparative Terms o Superficial, Intermediate, Deep Position in relation to each other Superficial: on top Intermediate: right under Deep: deepest tissue, etc o Medial/ Lateral Medial: near to the medial plane Lateral: away from the medial plane o Anterior/Posterior Anterior: the front surface of the body Posterior: back surface of the body ( can be interchanged with dorsal) o Superior/ Inferior Superior: closer to the head Inferior: closer to the sole of the foot o Caudal/ Cephalad Caudal is in reference the tail region/trunk region Cephalad refers to the head region o Proximal/Distal Proximal: position of structures near to trunk or origin Distal: further away from the trunk or origin Description of motion o Flexion/Extension Occur on frontal plane Flexion: increases joint angle depending on the angle being measured Extension: decreases joint angle depending on the angle being measured o Abduction/Adduction occur on frontal plane Abduction: movements away from median plane Adduction: movements toward the median plane o Medial (internal)/ Lateral (external) Rotation Transverse plane Medial (internal): moves anterior surface of limb toward median plane Lateral (external): moves anterior surface of limb away from median plane o Dorsiflexion/ Plantarflexion Dorsiflexion: moves toes superiorly Plantarflexion: moves toes inferiorly o Inversion Frontal plane Movement of foot towards the median plane o Eversion Frontal plane Movement of foot away from median plane o Protraction/Retraction Refers to the scapula or jaw moving anteriorly or posteriorly Protraction: movement anteriorly Retraction: movement posteriorly o Elevation/Depression Movement of the body part inferiorly or superiorly Elevation: superior Depression: inferior o Pronation/Supination Pronation: movement of the forearm and hand that rotates the radius medially so palm of hand is facing posteriorly Supination: movement of the forearm and hand that rotates the radius laterally so palm of the hand is facing anteriorly o Tri-Planar motions/ Multi-axial joints Primarily shoulder and hip joints Circumduction (rotating the joint in a circle) o Scapular Plane Functional plane Refers to the angle of the scapula in its resting position Sections o Best example is in an MRI Longitudinal Transverse Oblique o Longitudinal Runs the length of the long axis of the body or extremities o Transverse Sections of the body are cut at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the body of the part being observed o Oblique Slices cut on one of the previously mentioned axes o Open Kinetic Chain Distal segment of limb in question is moving while the proximal segment is fixed o Closed Kinetic Chain Distal segment of the limb in question is fixed while the proximal segment is moving August 31, 2016 Anatomy Lecture 2 Integumentary System Organs o Skin and a lot of structures associated with the skin Hair, hair follicles, nails, nail beds, scalp (protective layer for the skull, glands (sweat; 2 types) Functions o Protection(first line a of defense from a lot of external environments) o heat regulation, sensation, excretion of salts and organic compounds o immunity(part of the body that can heal quickly, always skin that can be replaced depending on how deep wound is) o blood reservoir (Has blood supply, blood is only form of nutrient that cells can take in) o synthesis of vitamin D Skin o Largest, heaviest, and most versatile organ Maintains homeostasis Ranges in thickness .5-.4 mm Responsible for 1/3 to ½ of your body weight Average adult has 22 sq. ft. of skin 2 major types of skin o Epidermis (outer layer) 4 major cell types Keratinocytes o Most important function is to protect body from UV rays from the sun, heat, and chemicals, and making your skin water proof Melanocytes o Next most abundant o Most important in pigmentation o Produces melanin (type of pigmentation that give your skin color) o Melanin enters keratinocytes and gives outer skin color Langerhans Cells o Cells produced in bone marrow o Migrate to skin and take form o Responsible in protection against infections o That’s why UV rays are harmful, because they destroy Langerhans Cells Merkel Cells o Responsible for light touches on skin o Found in deepest layer of epidermis 5 major layers Stratum Basale (base layer, deepest layer) o Layer of one single row of cells Stratum Spinosum o 8-10 layers of melanocytes o Some Markel disks and Langerhans cells Stratum granulosum o 3-5 layers of flattened cells where melanocytes become keratinocytes o are in stages of degeneration o when cell death occurs, they are replaced and pushed superficially Stratum Lucidum o No longer any pigmentation in them o Consider them dying stage Stratum corneum o Outer most layer o Layer of dead skin cells o Protection against external agents o Waterproofing o Keratinization process takes about 2-4 weeks accumulation of waterproofing/ protective keratin happens to 2-4 weeks to keep skin water proofed Dermis (inner, thicker layer) o dense connective tissues containing collagen and elastin o contains adipose cells o macrophages (white blood cells) fight infections by engulfing foreign substances and gets rid of them o fibroblast responsible for formation of fiber produces connective tissue when there’s a break in the skin o varies in thickness .5mm (eyelids) 3 mm soles of feet o Papillary Region Contains dermal papillae (most superficial) Has fingerlike projections into the epidermis Increases surface area of the cells Very vascular because it has a lot of capillaries Meissner’s corpuscles ( deep touch, pressure) Opposite of Merkels Ridges creates finger prints o Reticular Region Deepest layer of dermis Contains sweat glands and Pacinian corpuscles (pressure touch) Root of the hair extends all the way down to this region Has a lot of collagen and elastin so provides strength to skin Skin Color o 3 pigments Melanin Responsible for darkness of skin Carotene Concentrated to the eye Precursor of vitamin A Pigments for vision Hemoglobin Gives blood a red appearance Gives Caucasians a pink tint depending on quality of blood Skin Derivatives o Hair Present on all skin surfaces Reduces heat loss (most important function) Composed of dead keratinocytes
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