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Week 1: Epistemology

by: Maysun Cardwell

Week 1: Epistemology PHIL 2010 012 (TBA, Introduction to Philosophy

Maysun Cardwell

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About this Document

Intro to philosophy, what is an argument, how to make an argument, what is a sound/ valid argument, intro to epistemology, russell and Descartes
Introduction to Philosophy (2010 012)
Chris Foster
Class Notes
philosophy, intro, Sound, valid, epistemology, Russell, descartes, PHIL2010, 2010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maysun Cardwell on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 2010 012 (TBA, Introduction to Philosophy at Georgia State University taught by Chris Foster in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy (2010 012) in philosphy, at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 09/02/16
Intro to Philosophy - Argument: An argument is a series of statements where the last statement is supported by the first statements. The last statement is called the conclusion, and the first statements are called the premises. - An argument is valid if it satisfies the following condition: If its premises were true, then its conclusion would have to be true. - If our argument is valid and its premises are also true, then the argument is sound. - If: Antecedent, Then: Consequent Epistemology- the study of what we can know ​Kinds of knowledge - stipulative: true because human say it’s true - empirical: directly observed or told by someone who observed it Conditions for Knowledge - Belief: may be true of false - If it is true, there must be reasons for believing (not just a wild guess) for it to be a justified true belief - Justified true belief is condition for knowledge ​Descartes • Dream Argument 1.) I can’t tell if I’m dreaming right now 2.) If I can’t tell whether I’m dreaming, then I don’t know if my experiences are real 3.) I can’t know if my experiences are real • Descartes can know that he exists o Sufficient condition for existing: thinking Sense Data – Bertrand Russell - mental qualities (exist in one’s mind) - directly or immediately known (no “figuring it out”) - exist only while perceived Argument for change 1.) The apparent table changes over time 2.) The Real table is unchanging 3.) The apparent table is not the real table However, Argument from Similarity 1.) Different people have similar sense data 2.) Similar sense data are caused by the same physical object 3.) Physical objects exist However, we would have to assume that different people exist in order for the argument to be sound, which is circular reasoning. ​Argument from Simplicity 1.) There are complex patterns in any sense data 2.) The simplest explanation is that physical objects exist 3.) Physical objects exist


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