WWII & Jackie Robinson
WWII & Jackie Robinson HIST291W
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elena Bassin on Thursday March 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST291W at University of Massachusetts taught by Joel Wolfe in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views.
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Date Created: 03/26/15
History of Baseball I WWII Baseball on the Home Front A Baseball amp Americanism 1 MLB amp immigrant facilities both associated the game with Americanism 2 This deepened the wound of exclusion of African American players 3 Still MLB played a key role in expressing patriotism during WWII 4 It39s not surprising that Baseball was going to play an important role in WWII a Helped to de ne American patriotism B 1941 Baseballs Greatest Season 1 Joe DiMaggio amp Ted Williams emerged as megastars 2 DiMaggio39s 56game hit streak 3 Williams batted over 400 C 56 game streak 1 Began May15 1941 2 After 34th game AL Pitchers refused to walk him a Also increased his odds of getting a hit 3 56th game drew 67468 gas 4 Hit 409 during the streak D Ted Williams 1 Would only hangout with good hitters once he retired 2 Williams39 singular ambition was to be considered the best hitter in the game 3 At start last day of the season hitting 39955 4 Played both games double header 5 Ended the season at 406 6 No one has hit 400 since E Changes in glove technology 1 Glove effected batting averages F WWII 1 FDR ordered MLB to continue to play games 2 340 Major Leaguers drafted gt3000 from minors a Some of the smaller minor league teams had to suspend play 3 MLB sought out 4F39s teenagers amputees retirees and others to ll the void a Pete Gray amputee of the St Louis Browns b Joe Nuxhall was only 15 but pitched for the Reds 4 Expanded the number of night games to allow workers in war industries to go G All American Girls Baseball League a Kenosha Comets b Racine Belles c Rockford Peaches d South Bend Blue Sox e Milwaukee Chicks f Minneapolis Milleretes g Fort Wayne Daises h Grand Rapids Chicks 1 Was in response to several important things 2 League faced same problems as every league did a Unbalanced revenue 3 This wasn39t about equality 4 Women played in skirts apart of the apology H 1946 A Pivotal Season 1 Ted Williams won AL MVP 2 Sox went 10450 3 Lost Series to Cardinals led by NL MVP Stan Musial II Jackie Robinson amp Integration A Jackie Robinson 1 born January 31 1919 in Georgia 2 Grew up in Southern California 3 Died October 24 1972 in Stamford CT 4 Played 10 MLB seasons 5 BA 311 OBP 410 SLG 474 B WWII amp The Final Days of Segregated Ball 1 More amp More AfricanAmericans in major cities 2 War against fascism amp racism 3 Successes of Negro Leaguers when played MLB players bamstorrning etc 4 Scraping the bottom of the barrel for players during WWII 5 By interrupting a national narrative on racism integrating would truly redefme what it meant to be american 6 The success of the Negro Leagues didn39t matter C Kenesaw Mountain Landis 1 Bill Veeck was gonna buy the Phillies and desegregate 2 Landis was so against this he bought the team and sold it to a gambler 3 Three reasons for desegregation a Southern players wouldn39t stand for integration b Southern areas where teams had training wouldn39t accept players i Southern areas would39ve been fmancially devastated if teams did what the Dodgers and go to Puerto Rico Cuba and the Dominican Republic c Negro League players lacked talent and stamina for Maj or League i Never really had an opportunity to develop there skills ii quotPlaying yourself into shape without any coachingquot D Negro League Opponents to Integration 1 Integration would destroy Negro Leagues fan base 2 Negro League teams not indemnified for MLB signing their players a Contracts didn39t really exist 3 But team owners had to keep criticism of possible integration to quiet to avoid alienating their fans E Branch Rickey 1 Single individual most associated with the modern farm system 2 Played at Ohio Wesleyan was an integrated team 3 Aggressively fought for team accommodations 4 Played onoff with the Browns amp NY Highlanders F Robinson at UCLA 1 No one combined athletic ability and character more than Robinson 2 Brother was Olympic Team mate of Jesse Owens 3 Second lieutenant in Army 4 Robinson took an honorable discharge and left the Army in 1944 5 Played football baseball and track at UCLA G Began Dodger Career as a Royal 1 1946 Spring Training in segregated Florida 2 Led Montreal to International League Pennant a Seen as a more racially tolerant city 3 Batted 349 for the season a Downplayed his skills to set lower expectations b White press was going to jump at any opportunity to criticize him 4 Had spring training in 1947 with the Dodgers in Cuba 5 Black fans were asked to behave better than white fans a Consume no alcohol etc H Breaking the Racial Barrier in MLB 1 April 15 1947 Played First Base 2 26623 fans at Ebbets eld a gt 14000 were AfricanAmerican 3 As he had with Montreal Robinson drew huge crowds at home amp on the road I 1947 Rookie of the Year 1 Hit 297 2 Led the league in Stolen Bases 3 White society embraced him as a symbol of integration amp social equality 4 Helped Dodgers win the pennant lost WS to Yankees in 7 games 5 Helped the Dodgers draw over 1 million fans for rst time in team history J Jackie Robinson with Ben Chapman 1 Phillies were the most racist team at the time a quotPhucking Philliesquot 2 Chapman was from Tennessee and taunted Robinson from the dugout 3 Encouraged players to beam him on a 30 count 4 Chapman was ordered to take a picture with Robinson K Negro Leaguers To the Major Leagues 1 Roy Campenella Don Newcombe amp Jock Block to the Dodgers 2 Larry Doby Satchel Paige amp Luke Easter to the Cleveland Indians a Satchel Paige 1948 ROY was 42 L Next Generation 1 Hank Aaron from Indianapolis Clowns to Braves 2 Ernie Banks from the KC Monarchs to CUbs 3 Willie Mays from Birmingham Barons to Giants 4 Minnie Minoso from NY Cubans to Indians 5 Frank Robinson amp Bob GIbson never played Negro League Baseball a Signed directly to MLB teams in the 50s39
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