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AnS214-Week 2 Lecture Mon-Fri

by: Megan Spiegel

AnS214-Week 2 Lecture Mon-Fri AnS 214

Marketplace > Iowa State University > Animal Science > AnS 214 > AnS214 Week 2 Lecture Mon Fri
Megan Spiegel
GPA 3.85

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About this Document

Well here it is, everyone! The continuation of the Digestive Tract all the way to completion (lectures Monday, Wednesday and Friday). There will be a visual model that I intend to upload in the...
Domestic Animal Physiology
Dr. Adur
Class Notes
animalscience, anatomy, Physiology, digestion, AnS214, organs
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Spiegel on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AnS 214 at Iowa State University taught by Dr. Adur in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Domestic Animal Physiology in Animal Science at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
AnS 214: Digestion Part 2   ❏ Mechanical  ❏ Chemical  ­ Microbial: most ruminants   ­ Enzymatic: most monogastrics      ◼Regulation of the Digestive Tract  ❏ Neural Control   ­ Muscular activity   ­ Secretory activity  ❏ Hormones  ­ Enzymatic activity   ❏ Paracrine Secretion  ­ Enzymatic activity   ­ Growth & Repair     ◼Passage of Food & Parts that Play a Role in Digestion Diagram                 ◼Stomach (Temporary “Storage Tank”)  ❏ Location of Mechanical and Chemical digestion   ­ Mechanical and chemical digestion breakdown of protein and fat into chyme.   ❏ Minimal absorption of nutrients and water occur in the stomach   ­ Mostly proteins, carbs and fats   ­ Some lipid­soluble substances with break down in the stomach   e.g. alcohol and aspirin   ❏ Gross Anatomy of the Stomach Diagram       ❏ Gastric Gland Secretions   ­ 2 to 3 L of gastric juice is produced in a day  ­ Components of gastric juice are: H2O, HCl and pepsin  ❏ Parietal Cells   ­ Intrinsic factor: Glycoproteins and vitamin B12 absorption  ­ Hydrochloric Acid helps to break down proteins and kill bacteria → will eventually  activate pepsin and lingual lipase release   ❏ Chief Cells   ­ Pepsinogen (inactive form of enzyme) and lipases   → pepsin (active form of enzyme)   ❏ Enteroendocrine Cells   ­ Chemical messengers   ➤Paracrine, serotonin, ​histamines  ➤Hormones, somatostatin, ​gastrin      ​ ​ ​ ❏ Why does our stomach rumble? ​ ◼Accessory Organs: Liver, Gallbladder and Pancreas   ­ All release important secretions into the duodenum via ducts to aid in the continuation of  digestion of food.   ❏ Each organ plays an important role in digestion   1. Liver   ➤Produces bile and secretes it   ­ Bile is an alkaline solution containing:   a. Bile Salts​: aid in fat emulsification and absorption   ­ Bile salt gets recycled via the enterohepatic circulation   b. Triglycerides and pigments: ​  bile pigmentation is called bilirubin   ­ Bilirubin​ is formed in the Heme (“Heme” → “Hemoglobin”)   ­ The S​ terobilin pigment​ is what gives healthy feces the  brown color   c. Cholesterol   d. Phospholipids  ​ and  e. Electrolytes     2. Gallbladder   ➤Stores and excretes bile   only­ then releases when   needed via cystic duct to the  bile duct.     3. Pancreas  ➤Endocrine function  ­ Secretes insulin and   Glucagon  ­ Metabolizes carbohydrates  ➤Exocrine function  ­ Acini​: clusters of secretory cells   ­ Secretes pancreatic juice   ­ Zymogen granules  ​ of Acini contain digestive enzymes   ­ Trypsinogen  ​ (inactive form) and ​ rypsin​ (active form) are secreted   ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ​ ❏ What are vitamins?​ ​ Why does diarrhea occur?​ ​ Why does constipation occur?-​ ​ ​ ◼Rectum and Anus   ❏ Rectum  ­ Has three rectal valves that stop feces from being passed with gas ​(helps the individual to not poop their pants whenever they have to fart) ❏ Anal Canal   ­ The last segment of the large intestine   ❏ Sphincters  ­ There are 2 main rectal sphincters:   1. Internal anal sphincters   2. External anal sphincters     ◼Defecations   ❏ Mass movements caused by peristaltic waves forces the feces into the rectum where  feces adopts its shape  ❏ Distension initiates the spinal defecation reflex   ❏ Parasympathetic Signals   ­ Stimulates the contraction of the colon and rectum and then relaxes the internal  anal sphincter so feces can pass comfortably   ❏ Voluntary control allows the body to relax the external anal sphincter when needed.     ◼WHAT YOU SHOULD MEMORIZE AND KNOW: The Checklist       


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