Hist 1060, week 1 notes
Hist 1060, week 1 notes history 1060
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Larremore on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 1060 at University of North Texas taught by Kristin Bocchine in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see World History 1600 to Present in History at University of North Texas.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Hist 1060 notes Week 1 All lectures up until the first exam cover regional histories leading to their globalization periods. What is History? “History is a way of seeking truth” Bocchine It is a way of understanding the human world using written records that people have kept of and for themselves What should be studied? History studies significant things, people, and places However, more and more people have been studying the less significant and more interesting parts of history Who should be studied? Whose stories matter? This is a less easily answered question. Anyone can be studied and everyone’s stories matter. Just as there has been a trend in looking at the less significant parts, there has been an uprising in looking at everyday people as well. When does history start? According to Ms. Bocchine, history begins with the invention of written language How do you study history? Written texts (primary documents) Archaeology Material culture Why study history? Interest, required course, etc. Who is a historian? “a historian is not google” Bocchine A historian is not just a collector of facts, but one who can use facts to make an informed Argument or thesis What is Historiography? A history of history A record of what historians have said in the past and used as a record to compare new ideas to Historical Perspective There are no unbiased texts, anyone writing anything will have tainted it with their biased viewpoints and experiences. Historians have to sort out the bias and pick out the facts from primary documents in order to understand the real truth behind it Historians also have to account for their sources so as to verify their information How do you use dating? There are 4 basic acronyms to understand when using years B.C. (Before Christ), years leading up to Christ, bigger numbers are older A.D. (Anno Domini), years following Christ, bigger numbers are more recent B.C.E. (Before Common Era), the exact same as B.C. C.E. (Common Era), the exact same as A.D. Ming and Qing China catch up info is not necessary for the exam, it just gives good background to the Ming dynasty Ming Dynasty (13681662 C.E.) The Ming dynasty immediately followed the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty. The mongols had ruled as foreigners and the Chinese hated them Zhu Yuanzhang led the Red Turban Revolt and ousted the last Yuan emperor The Ming dynasty was founded with the principles of fixing all the problems from the Yuan. The Ming decided to focus on bringing back traditional Chinese culture and values NeoConfucianism:a reinvigoration of traditional Confucianism brought back and updated to fit with a new nonMongol China At the beginning of the Ming dynasty, they sought to expand their territory through military means. They sent military campaigns west and north but were soundly defeated in 1449 by the Mongols. This was called the Tumu Incident. The Tumu Incident Signaled a change from an offensive to a defensive strategy The Ming started to build walls and chain them together in a massive defensive fortification. This was primarily to keep out the Mongols and other threatening people groups. Wallbuilding reached a climax in the late 16 century and afterwards ceased to be useful Ming Government The government was reactionary, its primary goal was to reverse the consequences of the Yuan dynasty Emperorautocratic the court’s officials were mostly eunuchs and worked in 6 different ministries Ming China was organized into Provinces, Prefectures, and counties Yellow registers (census records for tax purposes) Local elites were immensely powerful and the primary law enforcement Ming Economy The Yuan economy was very weak at its end but the Ming started to turn it around First Century 13681450: a normal farming society, typical of NeoConfucianism Middle Century 14501550: a movement towards trade begins, mercantile trade means less money for the government to tax but more money for the economy Last Century 15501644: Merchants become the foundation of the economy, farmers start producing cash crops for sale at market Market Economy The Ming economy grew to be very strong in trade and specialized goods Currency A movement from Yuan paper money to hard silver currency Taxes had to be paid in silver Trade w/ Europeans occurred mainly to acquire silver in large amounts, something China could not provide for itself NeoConfucianism in Ming China With Confucianism coming back, women’s roles started to shrink Legally, women lost the right to inherit and own property Footbinding: a mark of beauty, kept women at home, limited mobility, an identifying marker of real Chinese women Female Chastitymarried women were thought of as being married forever, if they were widowed, they were not allowed to remarry without dishonor Ming China and the Europeans Why did the Europeans go to China? Trade for goods around the Muslim empires Cut out the Islamic middlemen Direct access to trade routes Missionaries looking to Christianize China Why did the Ming need the Europeans? Europeans had access to vast amounts of silver The Ming needed silver to fuel their economy Portugal and Silver Trade Amidst the religious wars in Europe, Portugal was one of the first nations to emerge united and stronger Portugal invested in navigational schools and new sailing technologies Portugal inched its way around Africa and into the Indian Ocean trade system 1511, Portuguese take city of Malacca in Malaysia and base Asian trade from that port 1557, The Ming finally allow the Portuguese a port from which to trade The Portuguese trade with Manilla and Japan to get silver and then trade that silver with China for goods Other Europeans and Trade th At the beginning of the 17 century, the Dutch started to push out the Portuguese from their port in Taiwan Catholicism Ignatius LoyolaSociety of Jesus (Jesuits) Lots of Catholic missionaries sought to convert the Chinese to Christianity The Jesuits did not succeed in converting large amounts of people, but they did expose the Chinese to new science and technologies from Europe Matteo Riccione of the first Europeans to learn Chinese language and alphabet Ming Emperor Wanli Emperor (15631620, r. 15721620) One of the later Ming emperors Invested heavily in Ming military, guns, cannons, etc. Got involved in a war between Korea and Japan, pushed Japan out of Korea with a superior military force Started trying to deal with the Manchu threat ineffectively Internal rebellions also started rising up End of the Ming Dynasty Problems with the Ming Factionalismcourt officials became divided and fought/killed amongst Themselves The court became very distracted by 3 big cases that were pointless and achieved Nothing 1. The Stick Case 2. The Red Pill Case 3. The Palace Case These cases caused the court to lose focus and fail to deal with the very real problems that were happening all around them Natural Disasters & Internal Rebellions Disasters were thought to be the result of the Ming dynasty losing the Mandate of Heaven (the Divine Right of the dynasty to rule) Uprisings Li Zicheng led a massive rebellion 100,000 strong The rebellion got as far as to sack the city of Beijing, but it lost to a combined force of Ming loyalists and Manchu forces The Manchu Threat Consolidation of seminomadic tribes Wang Tagi established the kingdom of Manchuria Tagi invested in Manchu identity and built up the military force to expand Manchuria into Northern China During the Li Zicheng uprising, the Ming loyalists went to the Manchus who were also outside the besieged Beijing and recruited their help in retaking the city After retaking the city, the Manchu force did not leave and took power beginning the Qing dynasty Steps to Empire 1. Merge tribes in Manchuria 2. Consolidate tribes 3. Create Manchu identity 4. Expand 5. Expand beyond China
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