Linguistics 201 Week 2 notes
Linguistics 201 Week 2 notes LING 201
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kate Jahaske on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to LING 201 at University of Arizona taught by Rachel Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistics in Linguistics at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Week 2, 8/29/16 Quiz Due TODAY no later than 11:30 PM Start reading chapter 3 of Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams, Descriptive and Prescriptive Grammar Assignment (Discussion) dye Wednesday at 11:30PM Syllabus has been revised, with slightly adjusted quiz dates. Check d2l for more The semantic definitions of grammar are, for example, a noun is a person place or thing. But, these seem to be inadequate after getting out of a small circle of words, and they cannot complete describe the ways that word categories function in language. A speaker does not focus on simply a definition, but the native intuition that you learn. Most often you will focus on syntax and morphology to be able to tell what is grammatical in a sentence. In other languages, while we use many adjectives, some may use none as all. Instead of saying the book is blue, they might say the book blues. The book is in the state of blueing currently. This tells us that there must be something more to the ability to tell grammar rules or grammatical ideas without a semantic definition. Even with a gibberish sentence: -the prbnit galrpbed over the miltish alfoon You are able to tell which words and verbs vs nouns. This shows us that native speakers have a type of intuition about how a word works in a language. Every language uses different cues to show which words are which, below are the cues for language Nouns Can often be made plural by adding (s) That often times you can count it Can be after a determiner (the, these, a etc) Can be after an adjective Can be suffixed by ize, or eqsue Can grammatically occur in frames like: "I like ___ in my tea" "The blue ___ was on the couch" or "The talk was about ___" Verbs Can be seen with tense suffixes (-s, -ed) Can be after an auxiliary verb Adjectives Can contain suffixes such as –er and –est or can appear before more or most. Can be before very Often can be seen with –y or –ness at the end Reduplication in English This refers to an emphasis in the language. The rose wasn't just red, it was red red. Meaning it was a vibrant red, or a real red. I.e. I like like him. The opposite of –ish. Suffixes/prefixes: -ish (adjective) o If you find the words that still contain a word after taking –ish away, you will see that all of the words are adjectives. Fish without an ish is simply f, but roundish without ish is simply round. o -ish is a good indicator of what is outside of the main circle of adjectives. It is somewhat red, but it is not the first red you would think of. It is only reddish. -ish (noun -> adjective) o Sometimes, -ish will also appear as a noun. If using the rules above, devilish, childish, boyish, and foolish all end up to be nouns. o To help you find this, see if it can go after a determiner. The boy vs the blue. Obviously only the boy is a noun and blue is not. o This is an example of nouns turning into an adjective. Instead of only being somewhat related to the original thing, now the item is directly related to the main root. Foolish (noun root) = being a fool (attribute of being exactly like a fool) Reddish (adjective root) = only somewhat red (less related to the main root) -able (adjective) o Attaches to a verb Un- (verb/adjective) o Reverses a verb or adjective o The resulting word without un- is still a usable verb or adjective Certain words can have a complex internal structure, they can be broken up into parts and those parts must be put into different definitions. For example, unlockable can be "able to be unlocked" or "not able to be locked/not lockable" This is an ambiguous word that has more than one meaning. The meanings are fine, but it simply the way you break up the word. Word trees: Break up the words and then label the parts of speech. Adjective /\ Unhappy (adj) / \ Un- happy (adj) Adjective /\ Breakable / \ Break(verb) -able Adjective /\ / adjective / \ /\ lockable / / \ Un- lock (verb) -able Adjective /\ / verb / \ / \ Unlock / \ \ Un- lock (verb) -able *note, while some words can go either way, use the one that makes the most sense These are broken up into morphemes, which are the smallest unit possible but still has meaning Week 2, 8/31/16 Prescriptive and descriptive grammar assignment due tonight at 11:30PM What is a word? The properties of words differ widely across languages. For example, in Turkish, one single word can mean the same as five words in English "gitmediysem" = "If I had not gone" In French, it may take many words to say one meaning that would only need one word in English. However, there are some examples in English of this as well, mostly idioms: He kicked the bucket = he died Word: a minimal unit of speech having a meaning Can be reorder or separated Can be separated by pauses Can often be coordinated (joined with "and" or "or"). It mostly means that there is a word boundary between the two words, even with the "and" or "or" Compound words cannot be separated Honey um moon vs honeymoon are not the same thing You can tell that "the" is a word and "-ness" is not because you can put pauses in between "the" but not in between "-ness." Lexicon: mental dictionary. They are sometimes bigger or smaller than an orthographic word. All items that have meaning will be in your lexicon whether or not if it is pronounceable by itself. When you see something new, you have a larger chance of understanding what it means by knowing its parts in your lexicon. Words that are smaller than an orthographic word (also known as a morphene): -ness -s Larger than an orthographic word: Kick the bucket = to die instead of the actual action of kicking a bucket Post office = place where there is an interface between the public and the mail system Morphene: smallest unit that still has meaning. Minimal unit of meaning. -s Un- Dog = a canine that has 4 legs in the animal kingdom Cat = a feline that has 4 legs in the animal kingdom The Of Most words are morphemes, but not all. Something that cannot be broken apart anymore. (Morpheme | Not Morpheme) Content morpheme Open class, new ones can be easily added to the language Morphemes that more clearly refer to something In English, content morphemes are nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs Function morphemes Closed class, no new members Contribute more abstract meaning and grammatical information like tense, word category etc. Include pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, tense markers, affixes, etc. Free morphemes Can stand alone as a word and is pronounced separately. Not every word is a free morpheme Only a word with one morpheme is a free morpheme (also known as a simplex word) Can still be apart of a larger word Cat, talk, of, the Bound morpheme Must be a part of a larger grouping, must be attached to something and never is its own word -s, -ness, un- Idiom: A complex linguistic expression whose meaning cannot be determined from the meanings of its components Kicked the bucket To hell in a handbasket It's raining cats and dogs Spill the beans Hocus-pocus Word, morpheme or idiom: Washer: word and morpheme, depending on context Incomplete: word Music: morpheme Repainting: word Spill the beans: idiom Baby: morpheme Prehistoric: word Root: main meaningful units that affixes are attached to Stem: Any grouping that an affix can attach to A stem can be a bare root, or a root plus affixes Affixes: Bound morphemes that attach to roots or steps Prefix Suffix Infixes Circumfix Words affix on both sides of the word Infix Inserted in the middle of the word Abso-freakin-lutly For an example of all of these together, take the word "blackens." Black = root Blacken = stem -s = affix To make an entry in your lexicon you need the following: Pronunciation Meaning Category or part of speech (verb, noun, adjective, etc.) Other related forms You do NOT need to know spelling for a lexical entry. Most languages never develop a form of writing. This is why linguistics do not generally study orthography. Language Competence vs Performance Competence We have the competence to create an infinitely long sentence Performance You would most likely run out of breath before creating an infinitely long sentence
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