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[Bio 102] Week 2 Notes: Evolution

by: Chandler Hartley

[Bio 102] Week 2 Notes: Evolution 102

Marketplace > Washington State University > Biology > 102 > Bio 102 Week 2 Notes Evolution
Chandler Hartley

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About this Document

These notes cover all of the current information that has been discussed in the book and in-class. I have reorganized a lot of how the information was presented to make it more logical and concise....
BSCI General biology
Justine Rupp, and Paul Verrell
Class Notes
evolution, darwin, fossils, history, Biology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Hartley on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 102 at Washington State University taught by Justine Rupp, and Paul Verrell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 186 views. For similar materials see BSCI General biology in Biology at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Evolution    ● Lesson Outline  ○ Basics of Evolution  ○ Fossil Database  ○ History of the ideas about Evolution  ○ Early embryos  ○ Artificial selection    ● Important People  ○ Theodosius Dobzhansky  ■ Founded evolutionary genetics  ● "Nothing in biology makes sense except the light of evolutions"  ○ Carl Sagan  ■ Popularized Science  ■ AstroPhysicist   ■ "Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence"  ● Evolution  ○ Change over time  ■ Ex. Evolution of Music over time  ● Changing from early classical to modern music  ● Biological Evolution  ○ Change over time in​ living organisms  ■ Attempt to mimic in labs what early Earth might have been like to see if  you get living things  ● Don't get living things, BUT get chemicals which are parts of  living things  ○ The origin of life ​remains a mystery  ○ Evolution occurs in two parts  ■ Space   ● Opportunities for evolution to occur  ○ Changes from Pangea (all continents were one land mass)  onward:  ■ Climates  ■ Weather  ■ Landmass move  ■ Movement of plates  ■ Time (Earth is 4.5 Billion years old)  ● Fossils  ○ What do Fossils provide?  ■ Provide evidence that life is old and that living things have changed over  time  ■ Indicate connectedness  ■ Suggest natural explanations for some weird observations  ■ Show similarities between today's and past's species bone structures  ■ Gives us estimated dates of age through chemical dating  ○ Explanations of evolution are shown through the fossil record  ■ Fairly incomplete, but thus far has done a good job filling it over time  ■ Fossils place species and life forms all over the world even if not currently  there anymore  ○ Transitional Fossils  ■ Fossils that fill in the "gaps" in the fossil record from one species to  another  ■ One of the earliest bird like fossils was Archaeopteryx  ● Translates to "Ancient Flyer"  ● Earliest birdlike fossils  ● Size of a Magpie  ● 11 Fossils currently found  ● Bone structure  ○ Hips are bird­like  ○ Tail  ○ Vertebrae  ○ Bird­like brain  ○ Teeth  ○ Feathered structures  ● Bridge between reptiles and birds  ■ Extremely important in proving the existence of evolution through an  example of a change in kind of species  ● Proof of evolution  ○ Whales have a pelvic bone  ○ Suggests that they previously had an ancestor with legs  ○ Ambulocetus   ■ Whale Ancestor  ● Had back legs, whale head, rib cage  ■ Transitional fossils  ● History of the ideas about evolution  ○ William Paley  ■ Living things are so complex that they must have been designed or create  ■ No natural cause or process that could make something so complex, thus  you must have a supernatural power creating them  ■ Modern version of his idea is called "​ intelligent design"  ○ Carl Linnaeus  ■ Understanding nature to reveal God's creation  ○ Jean­Baptiste Lamarck  ■ Combines 2 important views of Evolution  ■ Believed in Creationism (God created all of the animals and they don't  change)  ● But added the belief that in fact ​animals DO change over time  ■ Known for his hypothesis about how giraffes evolved long necks  ● God created Giraffes  ● Giraffes would eat all the lower leaves   ○ Some giraffes could stretch to get leaves that are higher  ■ Those would be more likely to survive and  reproduce  ● Next generation would have longer necks  ○ Some giraffes could stretch to get even higher leaves  ■ Those would survive and reproduce   ● Inheritance of acquired characters  ○ If a parent uses a trait MORE, it will be inherited by the  offspring  ■ Ie. If you get a scar, it will be passed down   ○ Charles Darwin Biographical Information  ■ The main player  ■ Born into a wealthy family  ■ Went to University of Edinburgh to become a doctor  ● Unhappy so he left  ■ Went to University of Cambridge to become a priest  ■ Took lectures from Hooker and Charles Lyell  ● Hooker studied plants and Lyell studied rocks  ● Both extremely important to creating Darwin's ideas  ■ Went on a voyage on the Beagle  ● Traveled all around the world as a naturalist  ○ Collected bugs, and rocks for the home land  ● Went to the Galapagos, and found finches  ● Finches took his interest, and helped him him begin his ideas of  Evolution  ● Information Darwin Understood  ○ Structures in Human, Cat, Whale, and Bat all have the same basic bone structure  ■ One bone connected to two bones, then a bunch of bones i.e. fingers  ○ Adaptation for Movement  ■ Species have changed the One­Bone, Two­bone, a bunch of bones ideas  over time to create tails, wings, and legs  ● Darwin's Ideas on Evolution  ○ Descent with Modification  ■ Common ancestor among many species, but all modified over time and  have similar structure  ○ Features of Finches were different based on the types of foods that they eat  ■ Harder shorter beaks used to bite seeds, long slender necks to get into  small holes in trees  ● Origin of Species  ○ Observations  ■ Populations have the potential to increase exponentially   ■ Populations are fairly constant in size  ■ Natural resources are limited  ■ There is variation within a species and variation is inherited  ○ Deduction  ■ Only some organisms survive. There is a struggle for existence among  individuals in a population  ■ Individuals with favorable variations are more likely to survive and  reproduce  ■ Accumulation of variation over many generations is evolution  ○ Darwin was forced to publish "The Origin of Species"  ■ Must publish before other scientists  ■ Darwin was waiting for a case study  ● Would give a story of the change of one species not data from  multiple sources  ● Alfred Russel Wallace  ○ Another scientist who thought of the same idea about evolution as Darwin  ○ Visited the islands of Southeast Asia  ■ Species change through descent with modification  ○ Mailed him about his ideas  ○ Co­authored a paper with Darwin and presented it to some scientists  ● Adaptation for survival  ○ Limited resources  ■ Ex. housing, food... etc.   ○ Natural selection favors better predators and better prey at the same time  ○ Environments change over time  ■ Do the adaptations still give the same advantages across the environmental  changes?  ● Early Embryos   ○ Very early development all look fairly similar across species  ○ Then mid­way through they are somewhat distinguishable in certain embryos  ○ Later stage every species is completely differentiated  ○ Human embryos at 4 weeks  ■ Had tails  ■ Gill slits  ■ Some tails do persist past the embryo phase, but then is cut off if it makes  it past­birth  ● Artificial Selection   ○ Mirrors natural selection  ■ A species go back to a common ancestor  ■ Humans have selected useful, or enjoyable traits in the species  ■ Species that survive have the human selected desirable traits  ● Evolutions is about Survival of those that ​FITS BEST  ○ Fitting into it's own environment  ■ Ex. good camouflage  ○ Peppered Moths  ■ Black and white  ■ Uk­based study resulted that when the coal polluted the trees causing them  to be darker, than the lighter colour moths get eaten  ■ Areas that were not as polluted produced lighter trees, black moths were  eaten  ● Struggle to reproduce   ○ Adaptations that are necessary to be able to reproduce  ○ Larger horns mean you can fight other males for the chance to mate  ○ Peacocks that have beauty to allow them to be more likely to reproduce 


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