Anthropology 160 Week 2 Notes
Anthropology 160 Week 2 Notes ANTH 160
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Friday September 2, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 160 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Tanya M. Meuller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Life Course in Anthropology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
Anthropology 160.001 The Human Life Course Notes Week 2 Week 2 Readings: Trivers: Chapter 5, Genetics, Behavior and Learning, pp. 87-108. (Learn) Low: Chapter 1, Introduction, pp. 3-18 (Tuesday, Thursday August 30, September 1): Natural Selection, Heritability, Behavior and Learning; Group Selection, Kin Selection and Altruism 8/30 Recap from last week The Naturalistic Fallacy: the confusion of what ‘is’ with what ‘ought to be’. Effective Science: -Research question -Hypothesis to answer the question -Operationalized variables -Methods for measuring the variables -Interpretation/analysis of results -Theory behind the interpretation This week Scientists have noticed: 1. Array of biological diversity; unique adaptation of organisms to their environment; what is the method by which it has arisen? 2. Natural selection as the mechanism for biological diversity and change through time 1. Example with Herring gulls -Large, noisy gulls found throughout the year in the UK around coasts and inland around rubbish -Breeds, often in colonies, on coastal sites -Even spacing of nests They do this to set boundaries; reduce likelihood of babies being eaten (these gulls are cannibals). -Male feeds mate while she develops eggs; couple mates repeatedly before eggs hatch. They mate repeatedly because they can store sperm. -The pair develops a highly vascularized, brood patch to transfer heat to the developing eggs. Heat transfer keeps the eggs an even temperature to help them survive and develop -Three eggs hatch at the same time, maximizing total surviving -Eggs are speckled and gray to match background Avian predators are less likely to spot them -Chicks have distinctive head patches that facilitate parental recognition -Not left alone until 3 weeks of age when they can resist predation -Red spot on parental beak is target spot that chicks peck to cause the parent to regurgitate food Beneficial for efficient feeding of offspring 2. Evolution by natural selection: the process by which gene frequencies change over time Produces characteristics of the human nervous system and other behavior generating systems (endocrine system, etc.). Much about behavior can be understood by understanding how natural selection works and what kinds of traits it might produce. Charles Darwin -Upper class family, studies theology at Cambridge -Joined HMS Beagle as the ship’s naturalist (specimen collector): Galapagos Islands –the most famous stop off the coast of South America Observations: -Many fossils resembled modern forms with slight differences -Island species were similar to mainland species -Fewer species were on the island than the mainland -Many birds, no frogs on islands -Python with nonfunctioning pelvis Darwin noticed that island birds changed in character when other competitors lived on the same island. The more species, the more specialized their beaks. Fewer species had generalized beak shapes. These finches on the Galapagos Islands vary widely in beak shape and function. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) Wrote An Essay on the principle of Population Brought two ideas to the forefront: 1. Infinite fertility but limited resources 2. The impulse to multiply is checked by the struggle for existence -By 1838 Darwin had come up with a mechanism (survival of the fittest) that might explain how species changed through time in ways that make them appear to “fit” their circumstances. -The ability of a population to expand is infinite, but the ability of any environment to support populations is always finite. Wild fluctuation of numbers throughout changing years -Organisms within populations vary, and this variation affects the ability of individuals to survive and reproduce. -The variations are transmitted from parents to offspring. Natural selection: the process where traits that confer advantages in survival and reproduction are retained in the population and passed on to the next generation Variation in a trait heritable variation variation associated with differential survival/reproduction = evolution by natural selection Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) In 1855 he wrote a paper suggesting that species were descended from other species and that the environment influenced the appearance of new species. Evidence Darwin presented: 1. Artificial selection 2. Geographical distribution of species and traits 3. Fossil evidence 4. Comparisons of anatomy 5. Embryology 6. Vestigial organs 9/1 Finish Lecture Two: Two Types of Evolution 1. Phyletic evolution –changes in the phenotype of a population within a species. a. Most of the evident that evolution does take place by natural selection is of this sort. b. Genotype –genetic sequence (measurable) c. Phenotype –observed expression (effected by the environment) 2. Speciation –divergence of one species into two or more species. Natural selection works on individuals, not ecosystems or groups Evolution is measured on the population/group level Examples of mechanisms: climate issues, fertility, predation, and immune function Organisms are maximizers The final currency (fitness) is number of descendants Survive & reproduce Survive & reproduce Survive & reproduce Natural selection is a creative process Uses existing traits and alters them to create new traits Lecture 3: Natural Selection, Heritability, Behavior and Learning Modes of Selection (3) 1. Stabilizing Selection a. Favors those with mean expression, disfavors outliers 2. Directional Selection a. Favoring one extreme or the other b. Helps lead to adaptation during periods of rapid environmental changes 3. Disruptive Selection a. Rare in nature, but led to the evolution of two sexes b. Selection against the mean i. Two or more morphologies ii. Sexual selection most common Finishing lecture three next week!
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