EPSS 101 - Lectures 5 & 6
EPSS 101 - Lectures 5 & 6
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The Origin of Fossil iF ueis Glucose TPhoilo3yniiiesiis iimi eoo EH o39i quoti c ifi o so iii a M 39 2 quotii 512 W 2 Liecttuire 5 g Wi T ri39UW U russii Fuels T f awe W C5H12O5 602 1 eneigy ECO EH20 K l AG zaeo iltJi per moller oric Himid 15x1quoto7 Jlkg T 39 Gmi39i p P UCi i E35 mi Eirii391 s iI ii iLjy39 T y or Companson asgjme X g P EJiii1iI1I391i 1DTighL39i39 11IiiquotfS1JhJiT11IuJI inIJ T f x M051 Ph0i0SYniTi39iB C energy 00 39 Umed i MU Eil7quotI Q i93 biosphere either by plants and animals or by emit FUEK rirLjaAperzlizi for a 39ii39 liiI12Jiiii iimire Z Z bacteria duriinig decay fOHOWHg organism death it Some can be sequesiere d in 39 ere it is not easiiy oxidized T T nditions oxygen can be 39 remcwedi from T e carbohydrates producing reduced organic matter F MJl39L SiECIfi i i illif39i Pquot 1lIt 39ayau niig m ui i m M L 7uigi39nij duj tj oxygen p ifquot t bf in is i C C o Vii 1 raj hi 0 n mg 5 Mn 9 quotklH1PQl U Q in Piiafxiri t1iE lIirl 11 GEM buiIiEi beiore decompo ih n 3343 Heoi and proisur 1y L39 es 5 uremia I LJQSEDU i Coal Formation and Coal Types Petroleum Formation and Types How WSFORM or T I T 1 i E COAE o no 7 ED i yi I 1 W 7 PETROLEUM 2 NATURAL SA5 FG R AT I N icyL Em ON ammbhhqm org mammm an 1inM up 3u naiiirniiw in UEPOSIIS usually ibieneaiih line surface oi U T 39 K T T 39 T lhe eaim e It calico swear when 1 coniains V i q 1 3 z oniy a SfW 1 391Du lDquot5U Lii39 and sour ii I oonmams a la oi suiful Crude oili l S aiso ciassitizti by me weigh oi 39 i its rnulecuics Lghi Crude oil ows freely Ike waier while heavy crude CM is mick like tar 3 rkquot39E1 is I ifMai II a oor auunbie blnelmu moam ih bIack udlnmunr tock oo imnd mosny oi urban and 39rydI1gtcrtonowIlh vnnuzn gas oonsrslung pnmaniy ol methane typ39aIy W1 39 ieas I louiii of other aiemmln tl nlw 3 H O and N ha mu Hg 1 than 20 P39aBViEl39 hydrocarbons Call 1 mnyd and mmgly rgqulrog le prmznidlm I 3 Em moor mmaarsi innu Iuai 139a 539 iIa1C IVE J Ewlshl F ii m la mtl Exposed Coal Seam quot quotquot9 quot quot quotquotquot 9 Gs aring Eanhaiggini 7 5 7 9enoiieUm wrong in i rio 5ooi m wag Hem d d iwmF39C 35Ed C E t 7 TCDUK Li C 39Clg haul in fine rm1ri Fovirn in Hularied idovhei h heclih Ti39 i quot39iid 39 Ti d9Ep homogciimauf iiaygerj iDCll m iquotDr ipiru I ouE rock iniiig m2i1S A Leas moiisiiwe Wmm Emma iuiore Juwifur impurity im m Po uho EPUVl397i ipEdi QUE H VDLgii mew i39ttli t tor E iiirrel rll Clr cl tl E cit uJD itTJ39Uf39b393 5IV13 l1l l39i i3 H s G inn e iHnost ie 39 Natural as Tar Sands Tar sands oil sands bituminous sands are unconventional petroleum deposits Loose sand or poorly consolidated sandstone with thick viscous tarlike petroleum Found in large quantities in Canada 70 and Russia Tar sands reserves represent gt200 billion barrels of oil equivalent compared to 13 trillion barrels or oil globally recently brought into production Extracted using strip mining or steam or solvent injection and then re ned l Natural Gas can be extracted from porous subsurface reservoirs or from nonporous shale and coal deposits using hydraulic fracturing tracking improvements in gas extraction technology have led to a boom in gas U5 Marketed Natural Gas Production production in the US and reduced prices lEw Ee3 l The US is gproiected to be a net exporter of 0 a natural gas by 2020 at l 0c s q ti N 4H IJaquot g EV Ph i X la A l 5 III39 In p Elli ya V Z 0 J 31111 i r I lDIIfJHEI l39L f J a6 1 M grwre trL 7 f N LN W til p 1 E W wit 3 Ltj 1 r39l quot amp39UE Ex Uwalu F U K in pW ilrl i t lpl L lcl alrwriels i39Cf1 t d 39l 3fDU5 Di 39 lirlrJ5tot iE irioill pt kiijhlg F 39 a39KIing 3 im llis uuriter til lriigh tt t l5iure Jt tlitcttfir lt 0tlr t39h lJ r lggge lrlotur1i glglgg Oil in the LA Area 0 O Near UCLA 1mun uhru K 39 quot Hi 7 j IlII 39f39 t H as l LA Ilmlillni V 5 r K i vi I 5 H 7 39 39 rlllI JE39quotr 1 39 1 lt 1 ll 1 ltan A 39 4 i quot HE39l39tHl39r39 H 0 0C ruequotrk L 39 L l I H 739 In 39 I F I 39 l V quot IA nu N mtHtm39rmi flu Ftrltt 7L1a393liIVquot39 7 c E I I It r an IL 5 lIin Hug 39 i I quotalt rm I3 39 390 Y 39 Discovered in test by Edward Doheny I p T 39 l J lg l 0 In the 193039s Southern California was a 7quot 0a p D M W id In M EHBUU Gd national leader in oil production Beverly Hillls High lquotquotEiDlfillE olt no illlrt rift M oil 3939tE39iCl Dix iE39id Hm lllne clue to 34 pcitcl hgl lCltW39V t39I 31l3lilI339 who tElCtUnllc fmill r5 lf t39f139tLlquot alt quot Drill 10039 l DlilIrJl Emir 39r eliLo JUl39F uIClf 1 Flu worlt f t rim ml Mar Ttmwise F39riiniryw sa 1EI J Petroleum Refining Crude all Is generally not burned directly but re ned lhro ugh a process at fractional UISEIHEIKEDH quotquotquot Bottlingico39ndelnsa tren point tntperaturr5 39quotiClquotEliii8 with increasing moitIlar mass Crude oil l5 heated and their sent through El column whose temperature decreases wrt1 height Compaon ants of li39lquot39lE mixture are separated out where the temperature of the column a close to the boittnglcdridensatton H 39 39 E pCln1 appropriate to Crude Oil Re nery Products it i that compo imd Natural gar is natura and requires no J letining rand F c 1 Octane Mdletzule 1Hlghar lecture nan can wdtulartd nrgrter nonewu n V 139I iE39ILli dotovrwnrtg l rl l39lIG I l1 23 1h J39l t lJ ltLl l griL39 iglfgr ms Wl fllti5 ha in El rrshri 9 cl f tlJlW ml is 39l Etilled 115 35 quot j iinle i39E399iy39li139lL rullutriri wlriiS393 leiquotnp t39quot lquot39Vir73939Ql39al39 up A lnorjlllrr 33 t4urh fuel l539r3priftlrlEcl l2ri l Jr i lquotl l3l3lll rl j lmquotM Fo lI l Fu l5 gr39rlraUi tl 53 39F tll39iLquot l l half oil Lu II C DP r ltquot1l39l39WP39tI ll llt tr lg to c it as ingt E I quotAlfu1 Fossil Fuel Reserves Fossil fuels provide 85 of the energy that modern society consumes They are our most valuable nonrenewable resourcesquot Economically recoverable deposits offossil fuels are called reservesquot Geologic processes have resulted in a nonuniform distnbulion of fossil reserves around the globe The global market value of proved fossil fuel reserves equals 27 trillion The market value of the top 100 public oil and gas companies and the top 100 public coal companies exceeds 7 trillion World annual GDP 53 trillion 1 id r r quotV f 39l i rlil lt392 Eutl inn riintt rtenst cit vquotr39m3t 903 t4 ICM1 1amp0 Net Energy and EPR iv The concept of net energy is imponalnt for assessing the viability of renewable and non r enewalie energy resources Net Energy Energy Produced Energy Consumed Net Energy Ratio Energy Produced I Energy Consumed Net Energy Ratio is also terrned Energy Paybaclk Ratio or EPR If Net Energy from a given energy source is negative or the EPR is less than 1 then more energy is required to produce the energy from that source than is produced Fossil fuels require non trivial quanltities of energy to produce and ireltine The EPR for oil is currently 6 meaning that it takes 1 barrel of oil to extract 6 barrels of oil The EPR for fossil fuels is declining steadily as the richest most easily obtained deposits are depleted The EPR for oil in the l920 s was 50 6 Here are some current EPR estimates for fossil fuels Oil is 39laliltF39t il nJ N N Coal 5 ll y l I l M 5 Natural Gas 5 Q i j 10 sf K Liquid Natural Gas 2 P rlgf ll Oil from Tar Sands 15 Trttces t39t H 1fJ3l39 EWrirltls r Wirtl t tquotitCquotl l39l ltquot tU 3quot5 F 651 pro rat P n1lf lEP t f h 4 fl v rlt39 itlll teI ePl 2 5 I l tttlj E 5 rev 39t3t LiL d H 39 Ghawar The World s Largest Oil Field Located in Saudi Arabia f By far the world39s largest ll p Ml easures ck l m Accounts for 430 of all Saudi oil production or 6 of global production Actual production kept secret but appears to have pealred and there are no more Ghawar oil elds to be found 9 FEgtoliltedl in TDll g u iI quot ru 1 If rbssavhai Ci Ir 7 5 L x ff 33r K Saudi Oil Production ilistory sf J l llb it l lltlrllrrCll9 pl LtlquotE0J39t39Je ttiiM teed 2 ruel li 2 2 Qwd 3e15 quotquotl i iritltiid Le a Synfuels Fossil Fuel Utiization and Demand Chemical conversion of one type of fuel into another I 2 2 First use quotCoal Gasquot mixture of H2 CO and CH2 used for lighting in the 18003 39 In ancient times fossil fuels were initially used for heating in regions where wood was not readily available as well as for road gaging and roofing i in medieval times fossil fuels had military uses flaming arrowsand lcipilin oil etc ivggqj as the dominant source of energy 39 2 the mid 1300 s duriri Vl ind5trial revolution 4 Pietrollieium rol uc ssur asse coaei s the dominant Example Reactions 3C lie coal 02 H20 H2 3C0 C0 H20 CD2 H2 Fiunther reactions can add lhydrocarbohs to l Electrical generation 2 t 39 Dleelwenieges Industrial Processes 2 Requires significant energy I i 2 2 2 rlgf li Process creates polilution Symueus l 392 2 Cleanerfinal products ii J5 1 Ti 0 Si UJ i ill liens a seal Coal Gas Lighting Wit i39 339l39 PT 391 p til I i Eil lef 393 QRIJ3 g3l Q1303 397ErDleU 39quot rieet i Fri5393 ll JQiE g lifl k e e53t l lJquotEf 5 External C0n1bU3tl0nl Engines internal Combustioini Engines Internal combustion engines burn fuel intermittently or continuously within The quotquote 39 quotquot quot9 e ee engine Wee th n ine to roduce mechanical ower iiriverited by James Wall in 1765 ednvened E E g p p P L heat from burning fuel into kinetic energy From To F e Steam enginies are externiall COliTlbU3iOlquott Butler Eixhalist 2 inn crz1nnic39a i tii39 engines in which a flame heals an intemal The first internal quot39quot quot e e quot39e he working fluid GD39fT LbL39 lIElr1 engine fUUf2l 39f 1 ll39C39 was JlJil by Dutch GV quot i quotquot aslronomarchrsliaan 7 39 quot e quotquot Hiuygieris Hi 15555 it 2 C mF e 59i n used 39Ul39ilDOW d l1f lo 3 Power 4 Exhaust mimic a piston weight inside a cylsndei to pump water Gas turl39iil39lFe cngie5 use continuous ccmibustibn lo C0lquotl391 QlfBquotSS I 7 IS and 39l 39Il i rotary TLIquotb ll 1IEI elades to achieve very high Wall39s DoubleAction Stationary Steam Engine W821i r M WW 2 M l y Steam engines are generally not closed cycle and 1 generally require large amounts ofwater to operate t 39l K I 2 Understanding the workings of engines led to a better i u 7 39 v PDWBT diin flle Win 39 e 39 uinders landiniQ of lhermodyinamics m 39w quot 39 quot 39 WW 399quot quotWquot 39ll nene it eat his im loui in 4 cl Ede li quot quotquot39t39r quot39quot ii l neht eneugg Lu M pzs pF UidlUCe p iitlleisk Jr gla liilllie Or CMe Se399l quot I r during the p q N 1 2 K 8q 39 Used bl N3We 0 make QeS0 ne during i Qr Fossil fuels are util ating as well as for the W quot WW2 and by the SOLl39tl l Africans during Nazi Simfuel pliant generation of mechanical power i r39 39 2i39 quot 39 apenneld 0 embBT90 Mechanical power can be used for a variety of tasks j k Advantages such as e lif kite and EISEOUS iuei efe mete 6 lillillihg food production and mining e n Tranisportatioh 39 First Law of Thermodynamics I EFWOPY and Disorder Not all forms of energy are equally useful Entropy is a measure of a system39s unavailabiiirgto go work on its environment The more ordered the system the lower its entropy The more diisorderecl the system the higher its entropy The First Law of Thermodynamics is basically a statement of the conseniaiionii39f enert in all its various form Thegchan e in total internal energy of a system is the sum of that heat energa entering the system from its environment plus the work donation the system by its environment Environment H T H g g H The entropy of the universe as a whole 39 LI339i39El2iii L fii ii2iZ 3 ifT T5 393 0 39v U0US 39IJCF 3 Slng e W weiv Y V g H 1 The entropy of a closed system can System T I y X never decrease T phT 39 39 The entropy of open systems can decrease only through the application of Enviroynmemy i work ieA cleaning your room i lncreasingi enitrrzipy is why heat airways 39 1i w iT39 It 7 T T flows from hot to cold lkLi 39riuIriswilllI2ix eltinlrnsuc twinTwititi li3ziilhi1iIL5 ALJ no AW Hi 39r4 ll1 5 39W3quotv i iIEiiiVll i1liiiquot39 Increasing entropy is why its 39 0 Joule39s apparatus to determine a V impossible to convert thermal energy the thermal energy equivalent of than 1 into mechanical energy with i0li 39me a39 Heat Work mechanical energy L3 o a efficiency Energy Add d DONE M px DfltiE1 F 0 iitfi 39 y39tti in v U q T lii ltL tipiei er i T oi g math UN ht liiE i tquoti ii Lii5ordzer imjin P yT yr3 iJ t39i0litquot igilane EV Hie Eijft 39E Iquotf i i iFLifECi3t 3 ti LiJiLuEi39r il iiiquotiii39I39 iifii39tj iiinmt 39ih1i39lLH Second Law of Thermodynamics Statements of the law in a system a process that occurs will tend to inereasiel the tetal entropy of the universe Heat generally cannot flow spontaneously from a material at lower temperature to a material at higher temperature it is impossiiole to conv ert heat compiletieily into wort in a cyclic process T h no ro isni eh P Thec angeofent pyofasy tem S QIT xij E y W PHUj C Ti a E E p 3 he iewie Ell U2 Hm TM Carnot Heat Engine Efficiency iig J1i Engine Efficiency e 2 Mechanical Energy I Heat Energy 139 nI for Maximum Thermodynamic Efficiency em 1 TcaidTm 1 5l39Iel y t Waste heatquot not converted to mechanical energy iiiaws to 3 the environment Si ti quotnif czui Tmld T U MP i 5 39 T I Energy flow in a real heat engine 5 C i E17 C er 1 le T quotIiail A MO car coai train anrivers at a Kainisas quot 39 power plant This particulari pliant Elec INCHY generahon consumes fourteen such trainloads of coal each week Lecture 6 Fossiil Fuels Enviranmeniial and Huimian Effects Cumibusilhla nmewamas 8 wast 5195 Olhur mnuwubln 3 ZLME lun39I ILuIsrrLI UCLA E55 im Eair1i1quot5 Eneirgy DilTIiIquotiiSlquotii Fig i 25ii iE SGUfIfIE S and pirospeci5 for Gii su5hiricIbi e iuiure Frrziiesiar Dizwid Paigei d 39S394 iquot39 quot39quotCJ Jquot39ZlL39If 39diI Fossil Fuel uiiliiizciiion 21ZJ nlhaI gal n nrul 39TIl39III TlIli I2i Tmnsporfafion combstion EecTr39ici l y genemfion 39 Space iieairing Ofher mcinufclcfuring etc H 92 and mlhla ma mil 3939 39 1 M 39i Coanlln E Ligtwerg Nofe how propor on of 9 Worid fossil fuel consumpnon since 1950 If oil and especially ncrrural 3 r 39 quotquot39 J39WnEiiIhailil gas consumpfionhave 7 W J j inuveasaed over 39I39lm o 539 39 LU p fquot39 Ha viriiLhou in mI 5 1 392 Jr J86 39 6quot a 39 i 1 i i u i e quot a T 2 39 T 39 0 W UHF x if5 I 0 393 rigsr is e Thermodynamic efficiency of a heat engine E1 1 11 H ind T W m 1 39 39 I r I 9 c Tn useful Fiir D i A was him awn aavm ism gtgtm r an H P 39 ear y W V wwoiie W J H i a Q 1 up u a Liar 1 39EW 1 I I EnA399 it C Mquot aim A 0 U CDM5 u 4Uji Equoth i inuiia e Ei ni Emj quot11 p quot 6 U k k U j T 1 upfc a W Um CLMLL TIVE DISCQVEFHES 03 cuMLILMuvE 7 k 3 P sauc now 0 S 119031989 PROVEO RESE VE5w 0 Q 1 T13 IM I pi i cr2T 3 M 20 D V 0 Fame FIGURE lgil GineraMzed Ecmrn of curves of cuT1ul a1we discoveries cumulative pro ductuon and proved FESENB5 or 8 mallfoileum mgmponenx duxrxiang a hull CVCIB 0139 Droducticm r indmales the time lapse between discovery and production From Hubhen 1962 Fxigme 22 p 55 w 1 I J 39 I 7 w 7 an 39quot quotE 3939 5 V T mo x no BBLS 3 L5 f E H mnmaTr U j T T I u 7 3 g 2 V CUMULATIVE 3959Vx39 quotL5 W rnnouc rnon T 39 quotquotquotL quotquot P I 24x1o39 aaLs T 1 xx K I Nquot E 4 5 I3939 on T m T Z quotquot I850 lav 1900 I92 r950 17 2000 2025 zosc vAI Figure 1 Lowerd US crude oil Tife cycle based on assumed ultimnlc recovcry of I30 and MM billion bbl Raprin le d from Nucn39mr Margy and Nmrfom39furc HubbcrI1955 3 EN cuuuLAnvE 1 T4 FHDDUC non W V was O 1 5254110 anLsi nsso uira IFOO mizs I950 IiT5 zo o zoza zaso YEARS IILLICIHS OF IHLS 1391 H Figurt 1 Lower 48 US crude 03911 We Eyciie based an assumed ulti muie rtcoverjr olquot1S0 and 200 billlicm bbl Reprinted from Nurlrar rnrrgy and rlacgfon fuchi Hubbcrt 1956 U S ml pmduclmn rile CrbhU5n39J U1 vi39rT39 1350 I339 mama 193 1940 1953 1930 209a 2033 204a oan 203a 2959 39Ir39eu I F5 4 2 H IIMquotn 1l mFx u 39 u n IMH Ln jmlrli llquotquotquot39lI 5 M K u1Mn39M Rcl 139I n39 IV pmsM up gm u N H 4 Lt MIn kuurnlujt Lul Jun Iv13 Um 7 5 Uhbl T 1Q7 5 II1HJ 2 15rcaI Worldi FetFD iiELliIi39I39Ii P rioductiiorni aindi H iubb eriquots Peak iiistory T PreTdiictid n r i I 39 i i An idealized beiiisihaped curve for oil productioni known as iHubbrert39s peak iHLibberi39s peailt sJifquot u ax 122oil E T i d iquot reserves r 3 P r 0 T p Aj CD quot 03 x 1 r I 39 9 A i nI ma I il laili LIPEJE Isis Ea Ii Nquot quot2a Iquotui r IiipIi 134 339aw I T 1 i r I mfi39M39JquotI39l 1 1 um I MIr lt52 T x k A L Td T T F M Tl quotquot fEL39 E 39 i lqu F955 393955 cm 5 ans P 0DUCTlON L39ROFliLES Q 39 2007 Erase can T I EL r quot 1 3 7 T 393 l l39 39 I4 l LA quot Time T 1 d i 3 as I quot T F u H p Hf P W IDG moo M00 IIMU il i Q quot Age df Oiai Long Term View T T FIGUFIF L2524 LllervgrEnvircnriiar1i md Ciirndta quotquot 39 391 quotquot 9 quot quotquot quotquot quot F quotquot iCopy39mnl 12 0 Napier E Ccrnpury ZDDB I 3939QAI iIv1iih39 i E39 39 1av iha J III S I V 39 i y r iris if ii U f 393quot Mi heiii useid N Pmdwho tj W F LlJl 04 43 Umiiii 39 Emil 39quot350iJICE S CL r iquotiEIquot39i39l j qr Peak DU Pea k Coal Annual Deaths in the Unitedi States 19992007 In 1956 Hubben esiin39ia ted that iJS coal prdddciion wduid peak in 2150 W mm W M PMW1 mmv r WiT T 39 b iMore recent anialyses suggest that i39ieTUrS coal peak WIN occur f391i2 0T32i Us Anmmmh Rm hi mul A L 1 Cgidi 1 3 gm 9e39 quot 39 r kmuomai qeliiila gy quot1mi T M 3 w39 1 I uio 1 i39 irI39 10 yam IQSJJUH U 139 E 5090 WT Hulrrir Vcjldkle Crriialimuzj 26357 T T T quot T m 1 nib iii ii71 iui iilniluili 39 ir L394 LT 9 T S 4000 aw 3ir2393 Incidents lnvolvlnq FifEal39I39i JL irJ 3000 L uT iiAw 2 i ifn 39quot Sgxugil Behaviors zLiUiJi 20 AH iillicll IE9 155 g and indiretl Ti1JgE1quotT39 A Mini quot I39Iiiquot1Ill1 K 1 gtIiiiiiuiiaInI39 IiiIi ri lt UiuH g39n K 1000 T T rs ti 939 39 9 Jquot39m auq 0 I T T T T US Medical Deaths 39 39 39 unnecessary Surgery 2000 13950 209 3050 MT 2 3930 iMedi Ca l i Qi Errors in HGSDILHS 7 000 Oii ieir Er rdrs in Hidspilais 20000 i 2ring tnui 7niIs 39m2x391 i rfed ions in Hcsp ams NonError Adverse E eels of Medicaiions 103000 Worldwide coai demand is expected to outstrip production in 2012 Environmental Costs of Coal Extraction C a39 Mquotquotquoti9i Fi l 39quotie 5i T BF r USi coal mining deaths 19902DUl9 tin noaa tiI8 EM ta i 0 t 39IlltlIOimgrr p c hlnaquot ll ilt oi mama it if use an Il l l ind to mun too e 33 gm rm iirm mou 3939 iquot 5 quot3 I K B3 0r 3 Kl uintli quot7 39 mm Q3 2W4 I5 E37da2I1ti H00 l Lltiplhi 03 3005 E 5196 lllfl til 35 man 03 2038 L715 dmin 200039 M cllaulttn EH 31331 2 F503 lIaIquotI 3 quot39 3 quot quotquot 393 2018 rtritha 200139 El acorn DEE i 39 2001 30 1aI hrt 031 Ian I dmmu 21304 339 rimM JOEL 1 23 IuII1riu iD239 20061 math quot 7 20071 Inning V V V V V mun atrm About 80 of US coal is Sl pped from the earth in siit139ace rrtines the rest comes from underground mines Su aoa 30 quot mlquot 019 coal mining may arartriit aialty alter the ianclscapo Coal oompanies throtiqhnut Appalachia often remove aritire i TO lH39Wagtllf39l tops to expose the coal below The wastes are generally dumped in vatlays and streams in west Virginia more than 300000 acres of hardwood forests hall that size at Rhode tstarirtl and 1 0 D Cl miles or stnrains lsavtj bean dastroyad by this practice Underground rnining is one otthe most hazardous otoccupmions Fntilltty Rate tiiiir the Hlnmg Industry and Pt1v39Il I Industry 264117 ttitnng and inluring many in accidents and causing chronic health problams E E quot 39 t I Landsat Views of E r39 3 rm Dm the growth of the it E Hobart 21 1 I i t Mountaintop N z fur l39 quotquotquott399 WV 39 39 ff p lbetwee i987 quot39 and 2002 L iquotquot P IELI J3 ii E MUSH3 jhiywpeid Hum Emmi Nut of tlttf 9EtroLit at olriiarr lbibii ti i t m g quotr b 1 f J MDLquot f P quotH 1 ml 395EEm lavit9et39ooi btl39ifiiulS Er W i L lrquot wLv 3 Ti li r39 39 k W H5 Oitti rquot Erucidtigrmltj otirli kill itr7ni J all lJW39Q Envir onrn ental Costs of F etroleu m Exliracliion and Procliittion Environmental Costs of Coal lLltiliization Excluding CO2 Emissiions Burning ccat causes srnog acid rain and air torrins In an average year at typical coal power plant generates r 3 t i0tJtJiCi ions at co 1l6 l mriirori trees worthy 10iO 00 tons of S03 trnakas sutturrc acid and acicl tairnli 500 tons ol small 8ll39bOI39FIIE partictos penetrate deep into the lu ngsli 10it0t3 Icons 0 nrtrogen dioxidet equivatient to hall at rnrliion aarsli i 2D ions at catrbon monoxide toi39r 170 its at mercury tllmricji 225 this at atrnnrc toxic 1114 ms at term ttoruitt There are 4433 coat rrreo power plants in the US it is esitirnatadi that ittiioiy account for r0t 0 deaths in the US per year imas ly due to air p olution 39 iPetroieurrl is part of the rtaiuratl enmrorirnani and is erentualllly irnatabotizeo by tziacteria i Major oil spills ana oornmoiri ga b aiy tytiical ly El 5 one every 2 months 0 quotq p The airtires t oil spill over occurredi in was H 3 l 39 I r E rzausod by Iraq delibaraztoly released about 240 I Lr p2 I rttillroin Q3l DFi5 atou t tonnes tot crude E tquot 39 oil into the Persian Gu lrt1uin39tng the 1991 Gulf 1 39 M War and burnt otl wells in lrowan vla As or becomes more scartze axploratiiotn will J llill 0 Enj ssiang I nmntration in Fish out out Pl Dd ttfl Lin Utmvincptgpd St t 39 Add Rain tro 39Egtt rrri lf lCl iquottquotlC11 rjire iaarrtetllrci oi pollutitl Fislt SLl 5C l hmE L r hd t i i axpand to more remote and more environmentally sensitive locations and cause more environmental de radiation ti Especially true for oil eirtriction lquotI390ITt tar sands First Earth Day Apn39t 22 1970 in response to Santa Barbara Channel Oil spill iquotlCt rctE39lt39lCt C73l f39 39 it39lCf t 1iiquotll2f itt1r10r rll ltpll lS quiclflj 393otr rir oitfi tiins riot V39r39llE1 EI jl tiiiilrtvriolr riritl owl lgg irquottaQltr tvDl lZFCl liti iiH 0 EW Advanced oating drilling rig could operated in waters up to 24 km deep and could drilll down to 91 km Largest accidental oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry Killed 11 workers released 500l0Cl barrels of oil per day over 3 months g T g osts are estimated to be XC 40 billion rC V y F7 r 7quot 1 I i V Qquot 39 i quot quot u i I E 4 I ttlntiiin 7113 A 39 goquot utrra391 I ll mlrai Pialllniiltllj Milt IIn Anni F138 on Shore oiigiviiap lilclv lrg in ttte suit Oi ifVlQi39ir Huge alTrlnore ctrt39lti39ri5i Environmental Costs of Petroleum Use excluding CO2 emissions 1 i v Serious air pollution potential 9 2395 Volatile Organics f Oxides of Nitrogen 9 Carbon Monoxide 5 5 Particulates 0 I nuan Progress In Reducing Utano Po P i nus iv 13 mi P J r39l U 39 I r I 1 F l 4 i i ll 39 4 39 394 Ii n H I r 3 Eur 9 at at 3 3 Q 3 3 L5 if llint beevl SLiC to t1fFiil m r 5Fh i at tau 5 quotquot lquot lDl E El1 iilt39ltllr W hll 1 lquot i ll3r Deep Water Horizon Explosion and Oil Spill MayAugust 2010 31 Sawmill lC39LlEd E ii lTl C ti39tl39l P Wce S ggd J t llhis U5 Tar Sands and the Keystone y Pipeline Tar sands are tunconventional petroleum deposits consisting of unconsolidated sand saturated with dense viscous petroleum that will not flow unless heated or diluted H with llglhter ltydrocarboins 1 t n Matting liquid fuels from tar sands requires steam and K extensive re ning EPR 18 9 i R h y 3M Alb irta arfada has extremely large tar sands deposits WW Tar sands mining operations have been likened to Mordor Middle Earth trom Lord of the Rings The controversial proposed Keystone Pipeline will carry synthetic oil from Canada to re neries down through the US towards the Gulf Coast The pipeline faces extensive opposition from environmerilalists 1 Si Gilli oi Mia taro i7ltl lquotClfl t lc J tot JoI ld tritlYquot5 lquotiiiitgt39 tlquottE uriruur1oli t39i9 tZlt t fjt oritl t rrtzicltsf toviolet one in roriri lquott5 iCi39ltquotl i W3 F iUWtPi39ri9 r t39iEt t i tr itl rtt l cl E 3 1shat ti 39 itquot in Lott il l i til i til 11 5 Ejlt39DU iquoticl lAli ElliElliquot draulic Fracturing Fracking Cmy 39inirit i3uits 1 intro Hv ll Tmt m SUV iFal39IitCi f139v391Ct Em l 51 I m Drilling approach developed in miicl tSl3lZl39s tor producing 39 a natural gas from porous but impermeable shale r Involves Injecting high pressure water sand and soapy chemicals to fracture the rock and release the gas Bushllcheney initiated Energy Policy Act of 20115 exempts g the gas induistrLfiromt 1U39 enivirognrnenlalregulations lncludirig the Clean Water Atl resulting in widespread quotii 5 2 use of this technique to increase gas yields W p MEquot 391 Environmental Effects Fracking chemicals contaminate aguifers 3 Fracking lowers water tables mu rIitquott mmt um MI 1111 an tlttnip lqiinmint wits J39 LIii iiIia s 1unit emu Advances in emission oontrol technology have resulted in signi cantly improved air quality in US cities despite increase population In LA the next area of focus are non standard automotive pollution such as vintage autos small 2stroke motors and ships and boats ss1au 3 2 we i Despite signi cartt improvements lllquotI air 1 3 t rt 1 th 1 it b i tin t l l3939h quot1 3911 a p quot c 31 2 gg ajer snpzrffanriz i 35 Htquotquot quot5 l l 39 tli Ny E Geographic Distribution of Shale attributed to the oombustion of 391 u quot gquot Flammable Tap Water Deposits with tracking potential petroleum in the US a we at quot Froitutrii t o ellt5 ireleo li icilurtil grog rttryi3gl lt quotl gtyigilly i tm1tffil tflPltll L rotrkr lilo turo l giot C in ti39iitpCr t Fn oi l 0 ii a n cl Wa r Since the beginning of the 20quot Century at least 200 million people have been killed in hundreds of wars hunger and poverty kill 10 times more each year The major causes of war in roughly decre n oil prevalence l RESQlJlCe Siial lldi wealth energy 39ReigioTn kill non believers and dogma master race etc all non fact based UprisingsLibralion Racial tensions Since the 1940 s oil has been imanlltind s most valuable resource quot World Oil Reseirves 100 trilliori World GDP 61 trillion per year World Military Expenditures 16 trillion per year Examples of oildriven wars World War II 19391945 Suez War 1956 lranIraq War 19BiCl 1988 15 Giiii War iiesdissiii 2 Gulf War tgtloiaial 5 n i 39iill ai 2i1 Wailll 39i39 r e392 K iiJ39i39 Lquotinri39ii39iiriii1t quotf3int S13 lei l iIuiit ltiulusiEs39J IiJ139tt cIii39l t 39i griii ire i i ilriJ I Sir39ll1 1r ye i 935quot litiitit J7 ili39r39ita vi E iiLiiiti iii 3r iti In modern mobile warfare the availability oi oil has proven to be as important as the availability of soldiers and armaments The US military is the single largest customeir tor oil in the woitd 39tilli il llquot1 ei iquoti iii iiquoti3 ltili tlti39tquoti3 ii Calif oil iiquotrtIrii riJZ lo3 iill7 7l1lJiQ firiftj left ltiiiiJli 1 quotquot 39i i t tquotl ml 5 up la Latest War Russia vs Ukraine Putin39s Candidate of Science Dissertation at the St Petersburg Slate Mining Institute quotMiinerail Raw Materials and the Strategy for Development at the Russian ElC0tquotl0llTW Putin argues that Russia39s natural resource base will not only secure Russia39s economic development but will also guarantee the coiinlry s international posilion l The quotnew cold war will be less over basic ideology but rather over access to basic resources F u l l i o l u pp ill ii ti 5 WE 5 PE if In 5 iiii i i39j7l i W RR M lfl i39iii Li i at l p P 5 s I39lIil illl lF 39 gr i 39 lRussia supplies more than 30 ot Europequots natural gas Most oi the pipelines go through Ukraine in 2005 a serious dispute erupted between Russia and Lilcraine where Russia claimed that Ukraine was CiiV39l 1ll1gI gas destined tor Europe in 2006 Russia cut of all gas flowing through Ukraine In 2007 gas now was restored but Ukraine refused to pay back Russia for the stolen gas in 2009 Russia again Si391Li iSi0ifi5 ti gas in 2016 Russia invades eastern i JitFal391e after an anti Russian group takes power and doubled gas prices if WJi ti it lllil Zl39iWiquot E 39 F39iii39E i39ltquott Gfftlgpl l iiiiflciih g SirPC1ii i3 li39quotlt39iiiJ39li39jt1l5
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