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Lecture Notes

by: Alabian Landrum

Lecture Notes PSYC 1101-004

Alabian Landrum
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The first and second week of psych notes.
Albert A. Maisto
Class Notes




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alabian Landrum on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101-004 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Albert A. Maisto in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
 Historical Perspective o Classical Thought­Greeks were very curious about the nature of things: What is the  universe?  Monism­idea of a universe  Earth, Fire, Air, & Water (Periodic Table)   Dualism­ 2 universes, one real the other quintessence   Quintessence­divine, untouchable o Rome falling­ Meaning of life, importance of quintessence o 3 Blows to the Human Ego  Nicholas Copernicus (1473­1543) put the sun at the center  The Copernican Revolution  The Revolution of Heavenly Bodies o Written in 1530 o Published in 1543  Religious Backlash  Circles vs. Ellipses­planets go in ellipses not circles  Charles Darwin (1809­1882)­ 1st document child development  The Voyages of The Beagle­ different view of people, Chile­earthquake  and mountain moved, how evolution happened   The Origin of Species (1859)­free get it read last paragraph  o Natural Selection o The Ten year delay  The Cornerstone of all modern Science­ nothing make sense without this  theory  The Religious Backlash  Sigmund Freud (1856­1939) eye and neurosurgery, loved coke and prescribed it,   The Interpretation of Dreams (1895)  Psychic Determinism­awareness: behavior­ product of our biology,  repression­ego defense mechanisms   Impact on 20th Century Thought  Representatives..weren’t the only ones o Early Psychologist  Wundt o Founded the first Psychological Laboratory   Leipzig, Germany ­ 1879 o Structuralism  The elements of consciousness  William James o Functionalism o Flow of consciousness o The German Influence  o Gestalt ­ “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” ­ Like  drawing a box on paper. There is not a box there but you created  the box that you see.   Behaviorism John B. Watson o The Principles of Behaviorism  The denial of conscious processes  The observation of behavior as the only legitimate  concern of psychology  The “operational definition” ­ measured behavior, deal  with facts, predict,  o The Impact of the Behaviorists ­ slow, center piece o John B. Watson ­ An epilogue­ trouble­ study sex with  undergraduates, J.W. Thompson ­ shape a population, largest  advertising comp. In the world  Evolutionary Psychology ­females are the selector and males are the  selected o Considers contemporary human behavior within the context of  our evolutionary heritage. o The “Selfish Gene”  Contemporary Psychology o Synthesis of earlier schools of thought o The impact of Behaviorism o The scientific method o The many subfields of psychology  Clinical  Industrial and Organizational  Social  Research Methods  Four Methods o Case Study  Focus on a single case  Generalization are difficult to make from a single case  Sometimes only method available  Like: finding the cause of lung failure; smoking o Naturalistic Observation  Eliminates or reduces contamination of laboratory  setting  Should be considered an essential element of research  designs whenever possible  Often lacks control  Ex  Can’t measure things without contaminating it  Marijuana use through history ­ reported use different  from real use, when you observe you’re opposing o Correlation  Often used with tests and surveys  Measures two (or more) dependent variables (DV)  A DV is a variable that is measured  Example o Violent behavior (DV1) and viewing TV violence (DV2) could be measured and  correlated to study the relationship  between watching violent behavior on  TV and subsequent aggressive behavior.  Illustrative Correlation o Ll  A statistical value that indicates the strength of relation  (symbol=r)  Range of r extends from a ­1.00 to +1.00  Magnitude of r indicates the strength of relationship. For example  R = 0.0 ­ no relationship  R = 0.2 ­ weak relationship  R = 0.5 ­ moderate relationship  R = 0.9 ­ very strong relationship  o Relationship between biological mother  who hasn’t raised her kids = 0.4  o Relationship between the one who  raised the kids = 0.2 o Timing and Placement  The sign of the correlation coefficient ® indicates the  direction of the relationship  + = positive or direct relationship o Line on graph extends from lower left to upper right  Correlation does not mean causation   Based on a correlation between two variables,  you ONLY know the two events are correlated.  Correlation alone does not reveal o A causing B o B causing A o A & B occurring together because of a  third variable o Experimental Method  The only research procedure that permits  The independent variable or IV  Manipulation and control  Vitamin C experiment: A gets vitamin C, B gets  nothing, C gets a sugar pill that you tell them is  vitamin C. A & C tie, Vitamin C has nothing to  do with stopping colds.   The importance of random sampling  Sample size (usually not the problem)  Significance ­ Generalizability  Proving its real  Substantial ­ Large   Produced a big effect  Scientific Method   Reliable observation o Operational definition o Repeatable  Like going into a haunted house and seeing a ghost. You run out  and tell everyone. They go in  and don’t see a ghost. Was there really a ghost? Maybe there was but according to science there  wasn’t.   Theory Construction o Theory  Hypothesis  Observations  If observations proves theory  support it if not refine  hypothesis and try again  o Theory: have to have an idea  Additional observations:  Support  Reformulation  Rejection


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