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Intro to Biology: The Basics

by: Tayah Andrews

Intro to Biology: The Basics Bio 1105

Tayah Andrews
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

These notes with briefly cover the background concepts that are key to the advancement of biological studies.
Principles of Biology 1105
Dr. Watkinson
Class Notes
Principles, Of, Biology, intro
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tayah Andrews on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1105 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Watkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology 1105 in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Intro to Biology: The Basics What is Science? General Info  Science aims to understand the natural world through observing and rationalization  It is descriptive and driven by hypotheses  It changes as new data, methods and ideas arise. Science uses both Deductive and Inductive Reasoning  Deductive reasoning uses general principles to make specific predictions.  Inductive reasoning uses observations to develop general conclusions.  Science begins with observation. That makes most of science purely descriptive. Hypothesis  A hypothesis is a possible explanation for an observation  It should make a testable prediction.  It is retained until disproven  It is always subject to future rejected as science advances.  It may be revised in light of new data  Hypothesis- driven science is a systematic approach to understanding the natural world  Scientists used the scientific method to formulate and test their hypotheses  The scientific consist of the following ordered steps: Observation, Question, Hypothesis, Prediction, Experimentation, Conclusion The Experiment  Must test the hypothesis/hypotheses  Must be carefully designed and executed so that only one variable (the independent variable) is tested.  Consists of a control experiment and a test experiment  In the control experiment, the independent variable is not altered  In the test experiment, the independent variable is altered.  The results will depend on how the dependent variable varies due to the change in the independent variable  All other variables should be held constant Other Key Concepts in Scientific Practice Reductionism:  Breaks a complex process down to its components into its component parts  This concept has advanced understanding in many areas of biology Systems Biology:  Focuses on how components work together  Relies heavily on modeling of biological processes  May allow prediction of emergent properties Science is (ideally) Objective Science Corrects Itself:  Peer Review allows for this self-correcting component  Also through reproducibility, scientific experiments can be tested over and over again to disprove or affirm another scientist’s work Scientific Theory:  Is supported by substantial direct observation, experimental evidence, and scientific reasoning  Expresses ideas that have been tested and proved to be very certain  It is not a guess


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