GEOG 204 Week 2
GEOG 204 Week 2 GEOG 204
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle Pope on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 204 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Chen, ZCidell, J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Cities of the World in Geography at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
North America III Monday, August 29, 2016 11:58 AM Question: How do politics and economics mediate human -environment interactions? 1. North American environmentalism a. Two separate strands i. Wilderness preservation 1) Not to be messed with by humans ii. Public health 1) How we live in cities and regulate housing and food b. Together in the urban environment i. Political ecology 1) Political and natural are intertwined ii. Environmental justice 1) Groups that are disadvantaged often disproportionally have environmental harm 2. Political ecology a. "politics are inevitably ecological and…ecology is inherently political" b. How politics and economics mediate huma -environment interactions c. EX: smog in LA, Hurricane Katrina Clicker Question: Which urbanized areas has the densest population in the US Answer: Los Angeles Why is the air quality bad? 3. LA: Physical geography a. Sunny climate b. Basin topography c. Offshore winds d. Nox, ozone, particulates (from cars) e. 11 to 12 million people f. Smog is stuck when it hits the mountains 4. LA: Human geography a. Urban sprawl, auto -dependent (many single family homes) b. International trade gateway (ships from overseas) i. Container ships ii. Diesel trains and trucks f. Smog is stuck when it hits the mountains 4. LA: Human geography a. Urban sprawl, auto -dependent (many single family homes) b. International trade gateway (ships from overseas) i. Container ships ii. Diesel trains and trucks c. 80 days per year are ozone alert days (more towards mountains) Clicker Question: How many ozone alert days does Champaign-Urbana average per year? Answer: 0 5. Smog in LA a. Increased asthma, cancer b. 1 in 7 whites, 1 in 3 people of color c. Vegetation changes i. More N3, less O2 d. Increased wildfire e. CA as national leader in regulation i. Has stricter standards than most of the country ii. Because of physical geography iii. IE smog emission test every year f. Causes and effects are human and non-human i. IE cars and wildfires g. Mediated by politics and economics i. Regulations and ports in the city h. Importance of place i. Major port Clicker Question: What's the main reason why New Orleans flooded eleven years ago? Answer: levees on urban canals 6. Hurricane Katrina a. Causes and effects are human and non-human i. EX: levees and hurricane waters b. Mediated by politics and economics c. Importance of place i. EX: low land 7. NOLA: Physical geography a. Extremely strong hurricane i. Rain, wind ii. Storm surge--wind pushing ocean inland b. Subsidence in Louisiana i. State is shrinking a. Extremely strong hurricane i. Rain, wind ii. Storm surge--wind pushing ocean inland b. Subsidence in Louisiana i. State is shrinking ii. Land is sinking and sea levels rising 8. NOLA: Human geography a. Low-lying city between river and lake b. Extremely poor, place -bound population i. Most people at the time lived there all their lives c. US Army Corps canals and levees i. Pumping stations that pump water out to the Gulf 9. Stats of Hurricane Katrina a. Evacuation worked great if people had a car i. Many people didn’t have cars b. Poorest neighborhoods flooded the worst i. Because inner city levees broke c. Estimated 2000 deaths i. Many supplies weren't brought to suffering people d. US Army Corps policies i. If canal wasn’t there, it wouldn’t have been that disastrous e. FEMA incompetence i. Not well organized or arriving quickly ii. Anti-federal government f. Locally overwhelmed i. Population turned over ii. People spread all over 10. Urban environment a. What counts as the environment? b. Who and what has the power to affect it? c. Who and what is affected by it? d. Cities=nature 11. For Wednesday a. Creative class b. Place marketing c. Urban entrepreneurialism d. Human capital e. Gentrification Clicker Question: What do you think an "entrepreneurial city" refers to? Answer: a city with lots of small businesses North America IV Wednesday, August 31, 2016 11:57 AM Question: What is the spatial structure of a typical North American city? 1. Urban land use models --generic map of region a. Central business district (CBD): "highest and best use" i. Easily assessable ii. Companies b. What happens beyond? c. Three models of the city i. "featureless plain" ii. Based on Chicago iii. Can see across this region d. Not mutually exclusive i. Can have all three happening at the same time 2. Concentric circles a. Burgess--Sociologist in 1920s b. Urban ecology: invasion and succession were being developed c. Zones 1. Central business district 2. Zone of transition: population is not stable in this zone; rented buildings; "revolving door"; apartments 3. Zone of independent workers' homes 4. Zone of better residences 5. Commuter's zone 1) Suburbs 2) 3. Sector model a. Hoyt--Economist in 1930s b. Central activities expand outward along a line c. Zones: 1. Central business district 2. Transportation and industry 3. Low-class residential a. Hoyt--Economist in 1930s b. Central activities expand outward along a line c. Zones: 1. Central business district 2. Transportation and industry 3. Low-class residential 4. Middle-class residential 1) Move further out when earning more 2) Expands into suburbs 5. High-class residential i. 4. Multiple nuclei (or centers) a. Harris and Ullman --Geographers in 1940s b. CBD isn't only center c. Multiple nodes d. Zones 1. Central business district 2. Wholesale, light manufacturing 3. Low class residential 4. Medium class residential 5. High class residential 6. Heavy manufacturing 7. Outlying business district 8. Residential suburb 9. Industrial suburb i. 5. All together structure a. Concentric is family status b. Sector is social status c. Multiple centers are ethnic groups 6. So what? 5. All together structure a. Concentric is family status b. Sector is social status c. Multiple centers are ethnic groups 6. So what? a. Government: can you direct the location of development/growth? b. Businesses: where are your markets and workers? i. Want to know where people are to market to them c. Citizens: where do you live and work? What is a "city" and what is "civic"? 5. All together structure a. Concentric is family status b. Sector is social status c. Multiple centers are ethnic groups 6. So what? a. Government: can you direct the location of development/growth? b. Businesses: where are your markets and workers? i. Want to know where people are to market to them c. Citizens: where do you live and work? What is a "city" and what is "civic"? Middle America I Friday, September 2, 2016 12:02 PM Question: How did Europeans change urbanization in Central America? Clicker Question: What's the worldwide relationship between population growth and urbanization? Answer: Urban population is growing faster than world population 1. Middle America a. Mix of indigenous, colonial, and post -colonial influences b. Indigenous urban base c. Subsequent urbanization for foreign purposes d. Mexico, Central America, Caribbean e. About 70% urban today, one megacity i. Almost as much as North America ii. Mexico City 2. Pre-Columbian a. Maya (1000 BC to 900 AD) i. Small kingdoms, cities centered on royal household ii. Descendants remain today --many identify as Mayan iii. Empire was in Guatemala and towards Caribbean Sea b. Aztecs (1375 -1521) i. Empire of tributes ii. Capital at Tenochtitlan (later Mexico City) iii. Subsumed by Spanish conquest iv. Larger area than the Maya v. Mexico very influenced by Aztecs vi. Empire in lower part of Mexico 3. Colonialism, Part 1 a. Why were Europeans the colonizers? i. Most civilized and established at the time ii. Better technology (Navy) b. Location, location, location i. Proximity--closer to the Americas ii. Cities--were on the coasts in Europe iii. Trade winds--currents and winds are with people sailing from Europe 4. Portuguese colonialism a. Earliest explorers in Africa ii. Cities--were on the coasts in Europe iii. Trade winds--currents and winds are with people sailing from Europe 4. Portuguese colonialism a. Earliest explorers in Africa b. Policy of trade, not settlement i. Tropical diseases not immune to, found gold to trade c. Developed slavery system in late 1400s i. Laborers (slaves) as commodities to be used up ii. Linking status and humanity with color iii. Developed social system of slavery iv. Cannot handle same kind of responsibility that they had Clicker Question: Most Africans who were taken as slaves to the Americas ended up in… Answer: the Caribbean 5. Spanish colonialism a. Different historical and political context i. Coming out of Reconquista (reconquering of Spain) ii. More interested in settlement b. Different physical context i. Europeans brought diseases (existing population was not immune to) ii. Settlers brought plants, animals (introduced them to environment) iii. Slaves imported for plantations c. Portuguese and Spanish split up the world countries on to see who conquers what country Clicker Question: What percentage of the indigenous American population died from European diseases? Answer: 90% 6. Law of the Indies a. Rules for Spanish colonies (1573) b. Included urban planning standards i. Central plaza surrounded by key buildings ii. Gridded, narrow streets 1) Established social control iii. New Orleans was a Spanish city 7. In conclusion a. Aztec cities as (Mexican) base b. Spanish colonialism i. New population, military emphasis ii. Created export economy c. Regular city plan d. All independent by 1821 (except for a few Caribbean islands) a. Aztec cities as (Mexican) base b. Spanish colonialism i. New population, military emphasis ii. Created export economy c. Regular city plan d. All independent by 1821 (except for a few Caribbean islands) Video: Central America Clicker Question: How did Spanish urbanization severely reduce the Mayan population? Answer: Crowded and diseased Question: How has the rebounding of the Mayan population led to a new wave of urbanization? Answer: land being split up for the children; don’t have enough land and food to feed everyone; Mayan move to city to make living
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