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BAIS 101 - Week 1 Notes

by: Catherine Murphy

BAIS 101 - Week 1 Notes BAIS 101

Catherine Murphy
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About this Document

World War I, World War 2, "Why 1945?"
The World Since 1945
William Goldman
Class Notes
world, War, Franklin D. Roosevelt, history, Contemporary, Cold, 1945




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine Murphy on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BAIS 101 at University of San Francisco taught by William Goldman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see The World Since 1945 in International Studies at University of San Francisco.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Week One: “Why 1945?” 1. World War I ­ Summary a. Began without a distinct cause, mainly began due to tensions  regarding tensions with underlying colonial powers, and control over territory b. Technologies/tactics of war: i. Trench warfare 1. The use of trench warfare meant that  even after months of fighting, the battle­lines didn’t do much 2. Trench­warfare meant terrible living  conditions for the soldiers, and oftentimes to gain ground they  would run out into a hail of machine guns ii. Poison gas 1. Often used by both sides as a means  of attacking the other side in the trenches iii. Example: In the Battle of the Sum, July 1st, more  British soldiers were killed in a day than existed in all of the U.S. Army at  the time, predominately due to the new technologies present in the war c. Legacies of WWI i. Massive destruction 1. Socially, economically, and  politically 2. Especially in war­torn Europe 3. Led to varying amounts of economic  crises ii. Imperfect peace 1. After this war, the focus was on  placing blame, especially on the Germans ­ “War Guilt Clause” a. This included war  reparations, which were essentially intended to keep  Germany at a level of poverty b. This eventually  precipitated the rise of Fascist Germany, which led into  WWII 2. League of Nations a. Tried and failed to  bring together an international coalition to help keep peace b. Woodrow Wilson ­ 14 Points iii. Rise of United States and U.S.S.R. on the world  stage 1. Made them both world powers 2. U.S., however, continued to be an  isolationist power until the attacks on Pearl Harbor 2. Revolutions, authoritarianism, and economic crises  after WWI a. Revolutions: i. German Revolution, 1919 1. Government was overthrown to  create a new one, however it was not stable 2. This instability was in part due to the economic turmoil created by the strain of the war reparations a. Because these  reparations were essentially intended to keep Germany in  poverty while the rest of Europe rebuilt, Germany  witnessed severe economic hardship 3. Weimar Hyperinflation, 1920’s a. In response to the  burden of war reparations, the German government started  to simply print off more currency to make the debt  essentially easier to pay off b. This made German  money essentially as useless as monopoly money ii. Bolshevik Revolution 1. Czars collapsed, leading to a power  vacuum 2. October Revolution, or “Red  October” a. Communist takeover  led by Vladimir Lenin 3. Eventually, there was a pretty  massive Russian Civil War a. Between the “reds” ­  Communists and the “whites” ­ traditionalists 4. Russia eventually becomes the first  Communist government in the world 5. Vladimir Lenin was horribly feared,  and this contributed to extremism b. Authoritarianism: i. Benito Mussolini, Italy 1. Fascist 2. Loved military life and was a  political opportunist 3. In Italy, the Fascists were in  opposition to the Communists ii. Tojo Hideki, Japan  1. Because Japan has almost no natural  resources, they wanted to overtake China to have access to raw  materials 2. Japan invades Manchuria, and  eventually mainland China a. Horribly destructive,  Rape of Nanking, 1937 iii. Adolf Hitler, Germany 1. Believed that the Aryan race  deserved “Liebestraum” or living space a. Initially, he wanted to simple force the migration of Jews, Poles, and other  undesirable races, but he didnt have a place to put them b. Leads to the mass  extermination of Jews c. Great Depression i. Global stock market collapse ii. Massive economic crisis, essentially ½ of the  economy disappeared iii. Banks crashed 1. Led to “Bank Runs”, where  essentially the banks ran out of money and thus people lost their  life savings iv. New Deal ­ U.S. Pres. Roosevelt v. Overall, led to a massive global destabilization 3. World War II ­ Summary a. Key points about WWII: i. German Expansionism 1. Invades Poland on Sept. 1st, 1939,  violating a non­aggression pact 2. Invades France, and defeats their  “Marginal Line” 3. Hitler tries to invade Russia, never  quite makes it, Moscow never falls ii. Pearl Harbor 1.  Attack on U.S. military base 2. Leads to the U.S. entering the war 3. Ends U.S. foreign policy of  isolationism iii. Theatres of WWII: 1. Pacific Theatre a. “Island­hopping” i. Militar y strategy that involved securing key bases on  islands in the Pacific Ocean to help essentially  secure the stepping stones that lead accross the  ocean ii. Key  Islands: 1. M idway Island 2. I wo Jima 2. European Theatre ­ Key Events a. Germans get kicked  out of North Africa b. Soviet Union gets  pushed back, but eventually beats Germany c. Allies liberate Paris  with the D­Day Attacks iv. Holocaust  1. Hitler championed the idea of  exterminating Jews and other “undesirables” 2. 11 million total people massacred 3. Precipitated the rise of human rights  studies v. Bombings 1. “Firebombing” a. A military technique  that involved bombing a city so much and creating such a  massive firestorm that even those seeking shelter  underground would be killed b. Used especially by  the Allies in Japan c. Massively destructive 2. Atomic bombs a. The most destructive  weapon that the world had ever seen vi. Yalta Conference 1. June 1945 ­ Last meeting of the “big  three”, Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt a. Roosevelt died shortly after 2. Helped to establish a stronger  League of Nations, and created the United Nations 3. Other main outcomes: a. Economic  reorganization b. European integration c. End of colonial  empires vii. Legacies of WWII: 1. Political consolidation a. United States and  Soviet Russia b. Created a more  “bipolar world” 2. End of colonial empires a. While WWI  weakened colonial empires such as Great Britain and  France, WWII effectively destroyed them and the U.S. and  USSR took power 3. Economic boom a. Both due to wartime  industrialization, etc. but also due to the manufacturing  power needed to rebuild decimated areas of Europe and  Asia 4. Societal Changes a. Because of the  aforementioned economic boom, many people had more  free time on their hands 5. Increasing rise of authoritarianism a. Increases in state  control and surveillance that accompanied that 6. Ultimately, the restructuring both  socially, economically, and politically precipitated the conditions  that led to the Cold War 4. What happened in 1945 that made it such a crucial year? a. End of WWII i. The devastation of the world, especially in areas of  Europe including Russia was unprecedented b. International economy/global system was being reestablished after  the war i. WWII was truly a global war that included all areas  of the globe, and thus after it ended, there was a redistribution of global  power ii. Namely, the new global powers of the USSR and  U.S. were emerging after colonial powers, such as Britain and France were crumbling in power iii. UN Charter established, based loosely on Woodrow Wilson’s failed League of Nations 1. Goal: to promote collective security,  essentially prevent yet another war at that magnitude iv. Through the destruction of WWII, an opportunity  presented itself to essentially remake the global system c. Atomic bombs first used during war i. Hiroshima/Nagasaki in Japan are bombed and  essentially obliterated 1. Although American firebombing  campaigns had certainly been arguably equally destructive  previously, the atomic bomb was significantly, terrifyingly more  efficient ii. The fact that this was justified at the time/seen as an option is reflective of the truly horrible nature of WWII iii. Brings into question a whole new set of war ethics 1. *This is the first time that humanity  possessed the power to completely destroy itself d. Human rights come into importance i. Horrors of the Holocaust needed to be prevented ii. This is essentially where the practice/study of  human rights began e. Marks the beginning of the Cold War i. U.S. propels itself into dominance: 1. Economic power, because the U.S.  was both highly industrialized and also nearly untouched after the  war 2. Also establishes itself as a kind of  global police force a. Cold War further  asserts this fact


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