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Childhood Psycology

by: Heather Glovach

Childhood Psycology Psyc 221

Heather Glovach
U of S
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About this Document

Childhood Psychology
Dr. Slotterback
Class Notes




Popular in Childhood Psychology

Popular in Psychology And Social Behavior

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Glovach on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 221 at University of Scranton taught by Dr. Slotterback in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Childhood Psychology in Psychology And Social Behavior at University of Scranton.

Popular in Psychology And Social Behavior


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Introduction  Brief History   Middle Ages o “miniature adults”  Dress  Work  Punishment  1700s o Rousseau  “noble savages” o Locke  “tabula rasa”  Means blank slate   20  Century o Compulsory Education  To teach new skills  Keep children out of “sweat shops”  Ages 6­16 are ages where they are considered kids   To lessen competition for jobs o Juvenile Justice system developed  Special hearings  Confidentiality of records  Separate jailing & punishment   Unless they do something really bad where they are trialed as an adult  Development   Focus on aspects of  o Physiology o Cognition o Behavior  Show both Qualitative and Quantitative changes o What development is about  o Qualitative   What these changes are  Asking questions  o Going from not being able to ask questions to being able to asking questions  o Quantitative   The number of questions or words a child can ask or say  Going from a few words to a few hundred words   It is o Continuous  Always occurring across the lifespan  o Cumulative  Builds on what was previously learned  o Directional  Start at the beginning and it builds up from there  o Holistic  Doesn’t occur in isolation   All things influence everything else   Changes o Normative  Happens to almost everyone in an age group no matter where they live   Puberty, menopause in women    Lead to similarities among everyone  o Non­normative  Changes that are unique, and lead to differences among people   Do not happen to everyone   Winning the lottery, parent dies at a young age   Influences o Home o Peers o School o Society o TV o Computers Areas of Debate  Nature/Nurture o Nature is genetics   Some people say it is the most important in a child’s development o Nurture  A child’s experiences   Some people say it is the most important in development o Development typically viewed as interaction between maturation and experience  Both are important  o Maturation:  genetic o Experience:  encompassing biological environment to social environment  Continuity vs. Discontinuity o Continuity   Development is always happening   It is continuous   Smooth gradual increase in development  o Discontinuity   More step like than it is continuous   Stage theories  5 characteristics o Qualitative changes  Interested in the types of changes that occur  o Invariant sequence  Start at the beginning and work your way through  Don’t go backwards (unidirectional)   Don’t skip stages   Set sequence  o Universal  Happen   to   everyone   everywhere   regardless   of culture or society  o Hierarchically arranged  Increasing complexity as you go through the stages   Start simple and use that simple stage to go into a more complex stage   What happens now influences what happens later on o Critical period  Happens in each stage   A window of development or opportunity   Can only have an influence at a certain time  Freud is one example of a stage theory o Background  Medical doctor in 1900s  Noticed peoples injuries were caused by emotional injuries and not physical injuries   Realized environment played a huge role o Structures of personality – constant internal battles between all 3 types   ID   Born with it   You want what you want and you want it now   Wants to meet desires  Not aware of impulses   Ego   Rational thoughts   Plans to cope with reality to fulfill needs   Aware of impulses   Called the negotiator   Super ego   Conscious   Harsh task master   Right and wrong and nothing in between   Moral rules that guide decisions  o Stages  Oral – birth to 1 year  Children have stimulation of the oral area  o Bubbles, spitting, babbling, breast feeding   Fixation o Can happen at any stage  o As an adult you will have issues with certain oral things if oral needs are not met   Anal – 2­3 years old   Child focus is on going to the bathroom   Toilet training   Brought about by maturation of the muscles to allow the ability to hold going to the bathroom   Negative resolutions can result in a fixation   Phallic – 4­6 years old   Genital area starts to become stimulated   Oedipus complex  o Little boys become sexually attracted to mom and feels in competition with dad  o Castration anxiety   Thinks   dad   will   cut   his   penis   off   when   in competition with dad  o Identifies with dad and joins him   Superego forms   Electra complex  o Little girls  feel sexually attracted to dad and feel in competition with their mom  o Girls identified with their moms but never got over her Electra complex  Will always be attracted to dad o He thought women have weaker superegos than men do   Problems with this stage can cause problems sexually or with identity later on   Latency – 6­12 years old   Schooling begins   Children focus on intellectuals and school   Redirecting energy  on environment and mastering skills  like reading and writing and math skills   Genital – 13­19 years old   Adolescence  o Called it a “turbulent time”   Reawakening of sexual matters   Directed at peers and not towards parents   Piaget is another example of a stage theory o Background  Deals with children’s cognitive development   Zoologist   Read in the fields of philosophy, biology, and psychology   Took a job at a Swiss clinic when his mother got ill   Worked for a man named Binet o Came up with a test for kids to determine their intelligence level   This is how Piaget got his interest in children’s cognitive development  o Stages  Sensorimotor – birth to 2 years   Huge time for babies for growth   The   infant   develops   the   ability   to   organize   and   coordinate sensation and perception with physical movement   Preoperational – 2­7 years old   Child symbolic system expands  o Language   increases,   drawing   pictures   increases   in complexity   Concrete Operational – 7­11 years old   Thinking becomes more systematic   Take the perspective of others   Think simultaneously of one or more problems   Formal Operational – 11­14 years old   Lasts the rest of your life   The most advanced level of thinking it will ever be  o Think more abstractly, form hypothesis and test them   Continuity in Development o Behavioral/Social Learning  Pavlov  Studying digestion with dogs  Skinner  Studying reinforcement and punishment   Bandura  Learn by watching others  o Humanists – believe we naturally strive towards self­actualization (maximize your potential)   What holds you back is your environment   Rogers  Unconditional positive regard  o Receiving unconditional love and regard will help a person reach and maximize their potential   Maslow  Says that somethings you have to fulfill before you can start other things for you to reach self­actualization 


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