New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Nutrition During Pregnancy

by: Heather Glovach

Nutrition During Pregnancy 350

Marketplace > University of Scranton > Nutrition > 350 > Nutrition During Pregnancy
Heather Glovach
U of S
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Nutrition Through the Life Cycle

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Nutrition Through the Life Cycle notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Nutrition Through the Life Cycle
Dr. Bachman
Class Notes
nutrition, Pregnancy




Popular in Nutrition Through the Life Cycle

Popular in Nutrition

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Heather Glovach on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 350 at University of Scranton taught by Dr. Bachman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Through the Life Cycle in Nutrition at University of Scranton.


Reviews for Nutrition During Pregnancy


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/03/16
Nutrition During Pregnancy – Part 1  Introduction   Topics covered include: o Status of pregnancy outcome o Physiology of pregnancy  Time­related Terms Before, During, and After Pregnancy   Conception can happen 2 weeks after the last menstrual period  Very pre­term babies are when they are born under 34 weeks  Pre­term babies are born at 37 weeks or less  Term babies are born 38­42 weeks   Post­term babies are born after 42 weeks Physiology of Pregnancy   Key Terms: o Gestational Age  Assessed from date of conception   Average pregnancy is 38 weeks o Menstrual age  Assessed from onset of last menstrual period The Status of Pregnancy Outcomes  Infant Mortality: o Deaths from birth – 1  year per 1,000 live births o Reflects general health and socioeconomic status of a population  o Decreases in mortality related to improvements in:  Social circumstances, safe and nutritious food availability  Low Birthweight, Preterm Delivery, and Infant Mortality   Low birthweight (LBW) or preterm infants at high risk in first year of life o 8.2% of births are LBW yet compromise 66% of infant deaths o 12% are born preterm yet account for high incidence of infant deaths o Rates trending up in the U.S. Reducing Infant Mortality and Morbidity   Improve birth weight of newborns o Desirable birth weight = 3500­4500 g (7 lb. 12 oz. ­ 10 lb.)  Infants with desirable birth weight are less likely to develop:  o Nutrition during Pregnancy – Part 2  Topics covered includes:  Status of pregnancy outcome   Physiology of pregnancy   Embryonic & fetal growth and development  Pregnancy weight gain  Nutrition and course/outcome of pregnancy  Nutrient needs during pregnancy  Special conditions during pregnancy Embryonic and Fetal Growth and Development  Growth and Development o Is at the highest level during the 9 months of gestation  If rate gain continues at this level, at 1 year of age the infant would be 160  pounds  o Table 4.12 provides an overview of embryonic and fetal development during  pregnancy   Some of the largest changes happen during the last 5 weeks (fat and  mineral content)  Most women do not know they are pregnant until the 4  and 5  week after conception   Intake of folate is very important for the formation of the spine and brain stem   Critical periods are within the first 8 weeks Variation in Fetal Growth   Given all required nutrients and protection from toxins o Fetal genetic growth potential is reached  Variations linked to: o Energy, nutrient, and oxygen availability  o Generically programmed growth and development  o Insulin­like growth factor (IGF­1)  Main fetal growth stimulator   Sensitive to maternal nutrition, decreased by undernutrition Newborn weight classification   Small for gestational age o <10%  Appropriate for gestational age o 10­90%  Large for gestational age o >90%  Risk of illness and death varies with size at birth Preterm Delivery   Related in part to maternal nutrition   Infants born preterm are at greater risk for: o Death  o Neurological problems  Lower IQ, ADHD, enrollment in special education o Congenital malformations o Chronic health problems   Cerebral Palsy   Decreased risk with: o Multivitamin supplements or folate intake o 1­3 fish meals per week o Exercise during pregnancy   Increased risk with: o Underweight (prior to pregnancy and not gaining enough weight) and obesity  (prior to pregnancy) o Elevated blood lipids, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress  Etiology remain unclear  o Don’t know exactly what the risk is, just that there is a correlation Pregnancy weight gain  Moms weight gain during pregnancy  o Weight and health status of the newborn infant  o Rough index of mom’s dietary adequacy   Weight gain recs o Influenced by the pre­pregnancy weight of the mother o Based primarily on gains associated with the birth of healthy­sized infants  Table 4.17 Pregnancy Weight Gain st  1  trimester  o 3­5 pounds  2  and 3  Trimester o 1 pound per week Composition of Weight Gain  The fetus is only about 1/3 of the total weight gain  Maternal fat stores increase: o Meet their own and fetal energy needs  Weeks 10­20 o Prepare for demands of lactation o Table 4.18 Energy and Nutrient Needs during Pregnancy   Nutrient needs vary during the course of the pregnancy   Overall, nutrient needs can be met with well balanced, adequate and healthful diets  consisting of basic foods  Energy Needs  Assessment of caloric intake o The amount of weight the mother has gained since the time of conception during  each trimester  o As long as there is no noticeable edema  o Average increase of 300 calories a day nd o Additional 340 calories a day during the 2  trimester   Bagel and cream cheese  o Additional 452 calories a day during the 3  trimester   Cereal, milk and orange juice   Mini meal Alcohol   Alcohol ingestion  o Strongly advised to avoid during pregnancy  o 12% of white and black women, 7% of Hispanic women in the U.S. o Readily passes though the placenta  Can act as a toxin  o Associated with:  Fetal alcohol syndrome  Fetal growth and development issues  Vitamins   Folate and pregnancy outcome  o Folate background  Known to be associated with anemia and reduced fetal growth   Folate requirements increases­ extensive organ and tissue growth  400­600mcg o Functions of folate  Metabolic reactions  Methyl group donor and enzyme cofactor in DNA replication, gene expression, and amino acid metabolism  Deficiencies lead to abnormal cell division and tissue formation Folate  Folate and pregnancy outcome  o Folate and congenital abnormalities   NTDs­ neural tube defects   3­4 weeks past conception   Malformations of the spinal cord and brain   Three major types:  Spina bifida o Spinal cord fails to close   Anencephaly  o Absence of brain or spinal cord   Encephalocele  o Protrusion of brain through the skull Caffeine Use in Pregnancy   Suspected of causing adverse effects  o Increases heart rate, acts as a diuretic, stimulates central nervous system  o Easily passes from mom to fetus  Fetus slower to excrete  Recommendation (old recommendation) o Do not drink or limit to 1 cup/day   Based on animal studies with high doses   No apparent long­term consequences for children of coffee intake during pregnancy   Generally concluded  o Intake of up to 4 cups of coffee per day is safe (~300mg per day) Factors affecting Dietary Intake during Pregnancy  Effect of taste and smell changes during pregnancy on intake  o Affects 2/3 of pregnant women  o Preferences for specific foods   “food cravings”  Biological reason unknown  o Likely related to hormonal changes   Pica  o Very common in some countries  o Eating disorder: eat non­food substances   Ice/freezer frost   Laundry starch or cornstarch   Baking soda, clay or dirt  o Related to iron deficiency but cause is unknown  o Not related to newborn weight or preterm delivery  o Can affect:  Gestational diabetes, lead poisoning, intestinal obstruction, parasitic  infestations  Food Safety Issues during Pregnancy   High progesterone level o Decreases immunity response, more susceptible to foodborne illnesses   Foodborne illness o Listeria monocytogenes   Passes freely from mom to fetus   Spontaneous abortion and stillbirth   Avoid raw or smoked fish, oysters, unpasteurized cheese/milk, raw or  uncooked meat  Lunchmeat and hotdogs should be adequately heated   Foodborne Illnesses  o Toxoplasma gondii  Passes from mom to fetus ­ mental retardation, blindness, seizures, death  Sources­ raw and uncooked meat, fruit and veggie surfaces, cat litter (can  transfer through air)  Mercury contamination  o Fetal neurotoxin   Mild to severe effects on brain development  o High levels in large, long­lived predatory fish  o Lower content in bottom feeders  o Avoid shark, swordfish, king mackerel, tile fish, albacore tuna, walleye, pickerel,  bass  Table 4.37 Healthy Diets for Pregnancy   Table 4.29 Exercise and Pregnancy Outcome   No evidence that moderate or vigorous exercise undertaken by healthy women is harmful  Benefits of exercise during pregnancy  o Feel better, enhanced well­being, shorter labor  o Reduced risk for:  Gestational diabetes, pregnancy­induced hypertension, low back pain,  excessive weight gain, blood clots   Exercise recommendation for pregnant women  o 3­5 times each week for 20­30 minutes at 60­70% VO2 max   Monitor heart rate and breathing  o Avoid dehydration  o Limit weight bearing exercise later on  Common Health Problems during Pregnancy   Nausea and vomiting  o Nausea – 8/10, vomiting – 5/10 o Hyperemesis gravidarum  Severe nausea and vomiting during most of pregnancy (1­2% of women) o Management of nausea and vomiting   Separate liquid and food intake   Avoid odors and foods that trigger N/V o Dietary supplements for the treatment of nausea and vomiting   Vitamin B6, multivitamins, and ginger   Heartburn  o Management of heartburn   Ingest small meals frequency   Do not go to bed with a full somach  Avoid foods that make heartburn worse   Constipation  o Prevention   Consume dietary fiber (30 g/day)  Drink water along with fiber   Consume fiber supplement 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.