GEO 101 Week 1 Notes
GEO 101 Week 1 Notes GEO 101LEC
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anisha Karim on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Bennett, S J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 216 views.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Week 1 Notes GEO 101 What is the Anthropocene? ● For the past 11,500 years we’ve been in the Holocene epoch (an epoch is a period of time) ● Since 1950, humans have been changing and affecting the climate so rapidly that we are said to have moved on to the next epoch, the Anthropocene epoch, reasons being: ○ Nuclear weapons releases iridium into the atmosphere ○ Massive consumption of chicken have led to massive amounts of chicken bones in the ground, causing heavy calcium deposits ○ Chemicals release pesticides, herbicides, etc. ● Evidence of the Anthropocene: ○ Ice cores can be used to measure CO2 levels. The significant change of CO2 levels are proof of the change. CHAPTER 1 Physical Geography ● Helps us understand the planet ● Addresses sustainability issues; We've gone from 6.9 billion to 10 billion people on earth in the past 40 years Geography ● Studies the earth’s living and nonliving systems ● Considers spatial (physical space, cultural, economic), and temporal (change in time) relationships 5 Themes of Geo ● Location (Home address, GPS) ● Place (characteristics :climate; language; culture) ● Region ● Human Earth relationships ● Movement (of ideas;energy; resources) World of Systems ● Atmosphere shelters us ○ Problem: the ozone hole causes breaks in that ○ CO2 has a slight cooling effect ● Hydrosphere (water) ● Lithosphere (bedrock and soil) ● Biosphere (living things) Tools ● Technology (internet, web based method) ● Methods (the scientific method) SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. Observe and inquire; ask a question 2. Explain with a hypothesis; if/then 3. Select analysis method; use a control for outside variables 4. Collect data (survey, etc) 5. Conduct experiment 6. Reject or accept hypothesis 7. Document results Shape of the Earth ● Round but not a perfect sphere, geoid or ellipsoid ● Equatorial surface is wider than polar ○ Rotates 1040 mph at the equator and 24x slower at the poles ● Axis: imaginary straight line through the center that the earth rotates around Geographic grid ● Grid network of parallels and meridians used to fix exact points on earth ● Latitude ○ Parallels that are 15 degrees apart ● Longitude ○ Meridians that are 15 degrees apart ○ The prime meridian runs through Greenwich, England ● Solar time ○ Based on the earth’s axis of rotation ○ The earth makes one full turn a day ○ The sun rises in the east and sets in the west ○ Solar noon is the the sun reaches the highest angle in the sky ○ The sun only shines on half the earth at a time, east side first ○ Standard time marked by 24 standard meridians at equal intervals ● Time Zones ○ The international date line is on the opposite side of the prime meridian ○ Add( to the east) or subtract(to the west) hours one meridian at a time from the time at the prime meridian ○ Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific ● Mapping Earth ○ A map is a graph view above the earth ○ Cartography is the study of mapping ○ Map Scale is the relation between the distance on the map to the ground ■ Verbal scale (1cm = 1 km) ■ Representative function (1:50k means 1 map unit is equal to 50k units in real life) ○ Graphic scale (shows scale on a bar; stays accurate despite size change) ● Map projection ○ Curved surface can not project onto a flat sheet without distortion ○ 4 types of projection include: ■ Cylindrical (if you wrap a piece of paper around a globe); spacing between parallels get bigger away from equator: distortion farther away from center. ● Mercator distortion ■ Conic (wrap the paper around one end in a cone shape) ■ Plane (touch a piece of paper to one part of the globe) ■ Elliptical = oval; relative sizes are accurate; shapes distorted @edges ■ Cylindrical Mapping ● All maps are distorted ● Mapmakers choose from shape and size= conformity ● Great circle route is the shortest distance between 2 points on the map ● Equivalence: equal area projection ● Shearing: “smushed” distortion ● Frontiers in technology ○ Remote sensing (using satellite images); spatial resolution is the size of the smallest are; spectral resolution is the range of the wavelength ○ GIS: combines software date and operational organization; captures spatial resolution ■ geocoding : merge conventional date with geographic location ○ GPS (uses 24 satellites) ○ 3D mapping : helps report humanitarian issues ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE Symbolic or ineffective policies are common and useless State has the power ● Clean air act ● Clean water act ○ Congress passes the laws ○ EPA sets the standards ○ States say who can release what where 1. Identifying Environmental justice communities a. 51% minority or 21% lower class automatically makes a community an environmental justice community i. Problems with this: Sometimes these percentages don’t correlate to the actual hazards of an area 2. Conduct a spatial analysis of the values a. States declared this; it's an ineffective policy
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