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Week 1 and 2's notes

by: Marguerite Slabber

Week 1 and 2's notes BIOL 1110 04

Marguerite Slabber

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This is all chapter one material, just covering the basics of biology.
Principles of Biology I
Class Notes
Biology, cells
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marguerite Slabber on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 04 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Adams in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
What is life? (Week 1) Characteristics of Life 1. Cells (Must be composed of one or more cells) a. All cells are enveloped by a protective plasma membrane that separates it from external environment b. Molecules - carry genetic information and transmits genetic instruction c. Organelles – perform specialized functions and are either with or without membranes d. Types of Cells i. Prokaryotic 1. Single cellular organisms (Unicellular) 2. Non membrane bound organelles 3. Bacteria and archaea (only) ii Eukaryotic 1. Multicellular organisms 2. Membrane bound organelles 3. Nucleus contains DNA 2 Organisms grow and develop a Growth - increase of size of individual cells of an organism, the number of cells or both b Some organisms grow throughout their life; others have a finite growth period c Development includes all changes that take place during an organism’s life 2 Organisms regulate their metabolic processes a Chemical reactions and energy transformations occur with in all organisms i Essential to nutrition; growth and repair of cells and conversion of energy into usable forms b Metabolism - all of the chemical reactions with in an organism c Metabolic processes must be regulated to maintain homeostasis (balanced internal environment) - proteins regulate 2 Organisms respond to stimuli a Stimuli – physical / chemical change in internal or external environment can evoke many changes 2 Organisms reproduce a Asexual Reproduction i A single organism produces offspring without the fusion of gametes; offspring inherits genes from that parent only ii Low genetic variability in populations b Sexual Reproduction i A fusion of gametes (sperm and egg) ii Offspring is product of interaction of genes contributed by mom and dad iii Higher genetic variability Basic Theme Underlying Biology 1 Evolution a Change in allele frequency, across generations, in groups of individuals called population b Allele – alternative forms of a gene c Genes – certain segments of DNA that can sometimes code for protein (protein → phenotype) d Population - all members of a given species in a given location e Mechanisms of Evolution i Natural Selection (when there is selection on individuals) 1. Leads to adaptation 2. Selection – demands are placed on the organism by the environment with which the organism must cope to continue to survive and reproduce; leads to different reproductive success. o Some organisms have greater total reproductive success than others – the number of offspring produced / how much they produce 3. Evolution in Natural Selection o Variation in at least 1 trait o Differential Reproduction i. Environment can't support unlimited population growth ii. Not all reproduce to full potential iii. Selected for (survivors) vs selected against (dying) o Heredity i. Those surviving pass on their survival traits/ the genetic based traits to their offspring (I.e. color/ long legs) o End result: evolution by natural selection leads to adaptation – the more advantageous trait that allows the organism to have offspring, becomes more common in the population i. Adaptation 1. Inherited characteristics that enhance an organism’s survival in a particular environment 2. Phenomenon of organism being well-suited to its environment 3. Process by which organisms become well- suited to specific demands of the environment (natural selection)  Mutation (physical change to DNA 1 Sequence of DNA 2 Potential to lead to evolution  Migration (when species come into or out of a population)  Genetic Drift (chance events) Summary: Characteristics of Life: o Cells (1+) o Growth and development o Metabolism (self-regulated) o Respond to stimuli o Reproduction (asexual/sexual) o Selection acts on individuals a Individuals get selected for/against o Evolution occurs in population a Across generations o Evolution does not always lead to adaptation. Natural selection is the only one. Most mutation that lead to evolutionary change are thought to be deleterious.  Vaccines o Flu - get different vaccines every year due to the flu's different strains that evolve rapidly. The resistant strains this year become next years dominant strain.  Dogs o Human-direct evolution - breeders choose desirable traits of individual animals and breed them to pass along those traits  Our Food o Artificial selection - the selective breeding of individuals to enhance certain traits  Infection o Pathogens have "emerged." these bugs have developed evolved resistance Organize the study of life  Biological organization - hierarchical and includes chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism systems (simple to complex)  Ecological organization - population, community, ecosystem, and biosphere levels (simple to complex)  Systematics - the study of organisms and their evolutionary relationships o How different organisms are related from an evolutionary perspective  Taxonomy - science of naming and classifying organisms  Species - populations capable of breeding with one another o Can successfully / potentially reproduce Taxonomic Classification is hierarchical (how all living organisms are classified) 1 Domain (most general) 2 Kingdom 3 Phylum 4 Class 5 Order 6 Family Genus 7 Species  How to remember: o Drunken Kangaroos Punch Children On Family Game Shows The tree of life includes 3 major branches / domains & 6 kingdoms (all living organisms fall into) (Domains) Bacteri Archae Protist Plantae Animali Fungi a a a a (Kingdom Bacteri Archae Eukarya s) a a Information Transfer  Organisms inherit the information needed to grow, develop, carry on metabolic processes, respond to stimulus  Genes - units of hereditary information, contains DNA o Genes and environment interact to produce the phenotype we actually see  Phenotype - physical/chemical expression of an organisms genes and environment  Result - not everyone with same genes will have the same phenotype  Environment can cause for some genes to develop DNA - hereditary material that transmits info from one generation to the next  Watson and Kirck stole Rosalind Franklin's research who is responsible for much of the work and data on the discovery of DNA (x-ray crystallography was her specialty) How Science Works (Week 2) Science is a way of thinking and a method of investigating the natural world in a systematic manner in which we generate testable hypotheses, evaluate these, and update / modify our ideas  Scientific method 1. Make an observation 2. Identify critical questions 3. Generating hypotheses 4. Hypothesis - tentative explanation that can be tested (an attempt to explain an observation) a. Good - based on previous research, repeatable and falsifiable b. Best way to test is with an experiment c. Bad - not based on current evidence or theory and/or isn't testable d. Independent variable – variable being manipulated / changed e. Dependent variable – what is being measured, the response variable f. Control variable – what stays the same 5. Making testable predictions – stating the expected results of the experiment based on the hypothesis (“if…then…”) 6. Making further observation or performing experiments 7. Correlational - examining the relationship between two or more variables or observational - experiment 8. Experiment - manipulate one variable (independent) and observe how that effects your response variable (dependent) a. Involves some sort of carefully controlled and randomized manipulation b. Must have 2 + groups (usually control and experimental groups) i. Experimental group varies from control group only with respect to the variable being studied/manipulated c. Must be replicated i. Replication - multiple independent observations with in each experimental group (in regards to experimental design) ii. Pseudo replication - the evaluation of experimental effects in the absence of independent replicates (BAD) 1. Look out for when doing scientific research 9. Gather and analyzing data – facts and statistics collected together for reference or analysis 10.Interpreting results and drawing conclusions a. If the data supports the hypothesis, the hypothesis is accepted. b. If the data doesn’t support the hypothesis, the hypothesis is rejected.


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