Music Appreciation week 3 class notes
Music Appreciation week 3 class notes MU 1113
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ethan Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MU 1113 at Mississippi State University taught by Ryan Ross in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Music Appreciation 8/25/2016 Plain chant continued Syllabic chant = one pitch for every syllable of text (Credo, Gloria, etc.) Neumatic chant = a small number of pitches of text (Sanctus, Agnus, Dei) Melismatic chant = many pitches per syllable of text (Kyrie, Alleluia) Modes = system of melodic organization used in medieval sacred music o All modes have final notes of D, E, F, or G o (Monophonic) o 4 main modes and 4 ‘plagal’ modes Texts of plainchant o Mass = central act of worship in the Catholic church. Containing texts central to the faith (Ordinary) and to specific rituals/events (Proper) o *Mass Ordinary (5 parts): Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei o Mass Proper: specific texts change according to occasion Medieval notation Plainchant was originally an oral tradition First notation was not precise, and was only used as memory aids = neumes (beginning in 9 century) Thenth single line used to denote one precise pitch, with neumes placed in relation to it (11 century) The medieval church invented western musical notation, to remember chants Then a single line was used to denote one precise pitch, with neumes placed in relation to th it (11 century) Only in the 13 and 14 centuries do we start to see pitches placed on full staves (four lines originally) Hildegard Von Bingen (ca. 10981179) o Abbess of a convent in Germany o Composed original plainchants o Said to have had vision from God o A great poet, musician, and scholar o Wielded uncommon power for a medieval woman o All monophonic o Called herself “Feather on the Breath of God’ Secular song in the Middle Ages Troubadour song = monophonic, often strophic songs written and performed by troubadours in the courts of France o Songs often deal with courtly love, duty, and friendship, etc. Troubadours= traveling minstrelpoets o Trouberes = troubadour from Northern France o Trobairitz = female troubadour (Countess de Dia “A chanter”) Music Appreciation 8/25/2016 Trope (troping) = an embellishment on the original plainchant o Prosula(e) = adding words to a preexisting chant Music Appreciation 8/30/2016 Troping continued Prosula (e) = adding texts to preexisting plainchant o Ex. [O Most Holy] Lord Have Mercy, [Lord Jesus] Christ Have Mercy, [We Beseech Thee,] Lord Have Mercy (Bold = original text) o *Middle ages harmony as we know it did not exist *Organum = adding lines above (usually) the original plainchant line to create polyphony; organum is history’s first polyphony th th o Early organum= c.a. 10 to 11 centuries o Late organum = 12 to 13 centuries o Notre Dame in Paris = center of experimentation for organum o Leoninus and Perotinus *(Leonin and Perotin) named as composers o Perotins Viderunt Omnes composed for Christmas mass of 1199 o Late Medieval Secular Polyphony: Guillaume de Machaut 9c.a. 13001377) (14 century = new art) *Machaut was a composer and a poet who worked for several members of the nobility in France He was exceedingly skilled in composing polyphonic music (These songs are usually about courtly love) Test 510 questions will be listening prompts (Need to be able to differentiate between songs) The rest will be about terms Music Appreciation 9/01/2016 Renaissance Period (ca. 14001600) Renaissance = o Rebirth o beginning of humanistic as a major approach to life Emphasis on human experience, emotion, and reason as a guide to the world; not just reliance on the divine and sacred o age of great scientific and artistic discoveries/advances 3dimensio;/perspective painting (Giotto di Bondone) Advances in architecture (Florence Cathedral, St. Peter’s Basilica) Advances in technology (printing press) Changes in society o Increased productivity, more travel/commerce led to merchant classes and growth of cities, spelling the end of feudalism General characteristics of Renaissance music o Smooth, homogenous sound o Imitative polyphony o More use of thirds as consonant intervals (“Countenance Angloise” = English Guise) o Frequent emphasis upon ingenious construction/craftsmanship (Arts Perfecta) o Main genres of Renaissance polyphony (Cyclic Mass, Renaissance Motet, Secular Song [Madrigal, etc.]) o Frequent use of preexisting tunes (cantus firmus) in new polyphonic compositions Renaissance Cyclic Mass = a musical setting wherein all 5 parts of the Mass Ordinary are cast polyphonically (usually for 4 to 5 voice parts) o Examples: Josquin Desperz – Missa Pange Lingua, Johannes Ockeghem – Missa Prolationum Renaissance Motet = shorter polyphonic works in Latin that set a sacred or religion related text o Examples: John Dunstable – Quam pulchra es, Guillume DuFay – Nuper rosarum flores