Cognitive Psychology (2101) Week 1 Notes; 8/30 to 9/1
Cognitive Psychology (2101) Week 1 Notes; 8/30 to 9/1 PSY 2101 - 001
Popular in FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asmaa Abdullah on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2101 - 001 at Temple University taught by Pamela J. Shapiro (P) in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology (PSYC) at Temple University.
Reviews for Cognitive Psychology (2101) Week 1 Notes; 8/30 to 9/1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/03/16
Dr. Pamela Shapiro 08/30: Syllabus Introduction What is Cognitive Psychology? ● It is the study of the human mind and brain ○ focusing on the mental processes that underlie knowledge and allow us to function in everyday life, such as: ■ perception: not only sensory, but thought and intellect as well ■ knowledge: learning new info and storing it in memory ● It is NOT cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) ○ CBT: effective psychotherapy based on the idea that how humans think about themselves, others, the world, and their place in the world. influences their behavior ○ was developed based on emerging evidence from the rapidly expanding field of cognitive psychology Chapter 1: ● The Scope of Cognitive Psychology: ○ What would happen if you couldn’t remember anything? ○ How would you learn? ○ How would you interpret and make sense of the world from day to day? ○ Memory: (The Case of HM) ■ hippocampus is the seat of long term memory ■ retrograde amnesia: can’t remember past events of a few years ■ anterograde amnesia: could not form or store new memories ■ HM’s hippocampus and amygdala were removed ■ Working memory and procedural memory were intact ● no conscious memory of learning anything ● unconscious procedural ● part of procedural memory is muscle memory because of training and practice ● working memory: while he is doing something he can remember because it is in his active memory ● procedural memory: he could excel at skills he has learned before even if he doesn't remember learning them in the first place ● long term memory gone ■ HM’s case shows evidence that: ● different memory systems ● different brain structures involved of different types of memory ● the hippocampus and amygdala are not necessary for procedural memory or for adult language processing History of Introspection ● Wilhelm Wundt ○ German physiologist ○ Famous for establishing first psychology lab in 1879 ○ established psychology as the science of experience ○ chief method was introspection (internal perception) ■ subjective measurement ■ the process through which one “looks within” to observe and record the contents of one’s own mental life ● what am I thinking, feeling, seeing? ● sensory information ● are my thoughts visual or language based? BOth? ● What steps do I take when I make a decision? ● Is my thinking influenced by my emotions? ● What kind of errors do I make seeing, hearing, and speaking? ○ Authored principles of physiological psychology (1874) ○ his student Titchener began the study of experimental psychology ■ for the first time, psychology was a discipline separate from biology ● Problems with introspection ○ Thoughts are not directly observable ○ Impossible to test objectivity ○ Individual differences in subjective experience ● desire to be more scientific led to these changes during the half of the twentieth century ○ The focus switched to stimuli and behaviors that could be objectively studied ○ Introspection and other mentalistic approaches were avoided ○ Behaviorism uncovered principles of how behavior changes in response to stimuli; such as rewards and punishment Behaviorism ● John Watson ○ defined psychology as an objective experimental branch of natural science ○ study only observable behaviors ○ no mental processes ○ goal is the prediction and control of behavior ○ Famous for the Little Albert experiment (1920) ■ classical conditioning ■ goal was to show how principles of classical conditioning could be applied to condition fear of a white rat into an 11 monthold boy, “Little Albert” ● B.F. Skinner ○ Skinner was developing his ideas at Harvard from 19281931 ○ Principles of ■ operant conditioning ■ shaping ○ Skinner Box experiment: ■ rat presses bar ■ If it gets a reward, it is more likely to repeat the action ■ If it doesn’t get a reward, it is less likely to repeat the action ○ Problems with behaviorism ■ Stimulusresponse accounts are not enough ■ Behavior has a “mental” cause ■ Behavior depends on perception, understanding, interpretation, and strategy Animal Cognition ● Mental processes can be understood as brain activity ● Ji & Wilson (2007) ○ measured brain activity in the hippocampus and visual cortex while rats ran through mazes with different designs on the floors and walls ○ The rats’ brains’ regions showed specific patterns while running the maze ○ Then, while the rodents slept the scientists measures brain activity again ○ The exact patterns of neuronfiring while running the maze awake also showed up during sleep in the visual and memory regions ■ this is because sleeping consolidates the memory ■ similar to spacedstudy phenomenon Behaviorism Fails the Verbal Behavior Test ● Different stimuli elicit the same behavior ○ Can you please pass the salt? ○ Salt, please ○ My food would be more palatable with sodium chloride crystals ● Same stimulus elicits a different behavior ○ My friend asked his mother to please pass the salt ■ the context helps us understand the meaning but elicits a different response as no one would pass the salt if they heard this sentence ● In these cases, it is the interpretation of meaning that determines the response ((From introspection and behaviorism, experimental psychologists learned that: ● Introspective methods for studying mental events are not scientific (not testable, cannot disprove) ○ However, we need to study mental events in order to understand behavior ● Cognitive psychologists study mental events, but do so indirectly ○ visible events are measured, such as stimuli and responses ○ Hypotheses are developed about the underlying mental events (mechanisms) ○ These hypotheses are then tested by designing experiments to gather further measurable events ● This approach draws upon the transcendental methods and Immanuel Kant ○ one begins with the observable effects ○ Then one would world backwards to find the cause ● An analogy can be made to a police detective using clues to figure out how a crime was committed ○ They work back from the time they discovered a crime was done to learn the very first step the criminal took to go on with the crime What took so long? ● Hermann von Ebbinghaus ○ Father of Memory Research ■ learning and forgetting curves ■ serial position effect ■ savings Score Working Memory ● is temporary memory storage ● Info is held in working memory while it is currently being processed (worked on) ● The Span Test measures workingmemory capacity ○ Span scores observable ○ WM capacity Not observable ● WM system is not a single entity ○ in one view, a central executive coordinates the activities in other “assistant” components ○ One assistant is the articulatory rehearsal loop (with two elements) ■ Subvocalization ● silently pronouncing words ■ phonologication buffer ● An auditory image of the words ● Evidence for WM model ○ during span tests, confusions are often made between letters that sound alike, not letters that look alike ○ This suggests that working memory system makes use of mechanisms that are used during speaking and hearing ● Concurrent articulation reduces memory span dramatically ○ This suggests that the model needs to incorporate speech mechanisms ● The study of WM draws upon thee Kantian logic described earlier: ○ Unseen mechanisms (the rehearsal loop) are used to explain observable data (the patterns of errors in span test) ● Evidence from cognitive neuroscience is also brought into the model ○ The testing of people with anarthria the inability to produce overt speech has shown that muscle movement is not needed for subvocal rehearsal ○ Brain imaging suggests that the same regions used for subvocal rehearsal are used during speech production and comprehension. ● Converging Evidence ○ Deaf people use covert signing, or an “innerhand” during verbal WM tasks ○ Concurrent hand movements can suppress rehearsal just as concurrent articulation does for spoken language ● Multiple lines of evidence need to be used when we’re hypothesizing mechanisms used to explain the observable data ● Often a single piece of data can be explained by a variety of hypotheses ● WM is more than just a span task ○ These mechanisms are important during reading, reasoning, and problem solving ○ The rehearsal loops plays an imp role during development as we are learning new vocabulary ● Experiments allow cognitive psychologists to understand internal complex mechanisms in a simpler, more constrained manner.