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Life 102 - Week 02 Notes

by: AveryLemler

Life 102 - Week 02 Notes Life 102


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These notes are a combination of book notes and lecture notes.
Attributes of Living Systems
Dr. Erik Arthun
Class Notes
Biology, Colorado State University, Attributes of Living Systems, Bio, Lecture Notes, Book, notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by AveryLemler on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Erik Arthun in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Life Sciences at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Life 102 ­ CSU       Week 02 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  Chapter 3: Water and Life  ● Water is the most important thing to life on Earth    3.1: Polar covalent bonds in water molecules result in hydrogen bonding  ● Polar Covalent Bonds​: ​a covalent bond in which electrons are more attracted to  the molecule that is more electronegative than the other  ○ This makes water a ​Polar Molecule​:​ the overall charge of the molecule is  not distributed evenly throughout  ■ Oxygen has a partial negative charge and hydrogen has a partial  positive charge    3.2: Four emergent properties of water contribute to Earth’s suitability for life  ● Water is Cohesive​: h ​ igh surface tension  ○ Surface Tension​: ​how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a  liquid  ○ Due to hydrogen bonds  ○ Allows plants to drag water against gravity from the roots  ● Water has a high specific heat​:​ it is able to absorb and release a large amount  of heat without a drastic change in its own temperature  ○ Specific Heat​: ​the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of  that substance to change its temperature by 1℃   ○ Due to hydrogen bonds   i. Hydrogen bonds have to be broke to heat up and they have to form  to cool down, which takes a lot of energy  ● Water has a high heat of vaporization​: ​it takes an extreme amount of energy  for water to vaporize  ○ Heat of Vaporization​: ​the amount of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it  to vaporize  ○ Evaporative Cooling​: ​a surface cools as a liquid on top of it evaporates  Life 102 ­ CSU       Week 02 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  i. This helps stabilize temperatures in organisms and bodies of water  ● Water is the most dense in the liquid phase​: ​water expands when freezing  (ice floats on water)  ○ Due to molecules keeping other molecules “at arm’s length” with hydrogen  bonds  ○ When water freezes, molecules move away from each other and stabilize   ○ If ice sank, bodies of water would freeze solid and make life impossible  ● Water is polar​: ​makes it a fantastic solvent of polar compounds  ○ Polar Compounds​: ​hydrophilic compounds that dissolve in water  ○ Nonpolar Compounds​: ​hydrophobic compounds that do not dissolve in  water  i. Ex: oil  ● Solutions​: ​a solute dissolved in a solvent  ○ Solute​: a ​  compound that are dissolved  ○ Solvent​: ​a liquid that a compound is dissolved in  ○ Concentration​: ​how much solute is present in the solvent  i. Expressed in moles    3.3: Acidic and basic conditions affect living organisms  ● pH: ​  ​a measure of the concentration of H+ ions in solution  ○ More H+ ions than OH­ ions = more ​acidic​ (low pH)  ○ More OH­ ions than H+ ions = more  ​ ​basic​ (high pH)  ○ Same amount of OH­ ions and H+ ions = ​neutral​ (pH7)  i. Cells need a pH around 6­8 in order to carry out biological reactions  1. A person can only survive 2­3 minutes with a pH variation of  0.4  2. Buffers​: ​weak acids/bases that are already in the  bloodstream in order to counteract a variation in pH by  taking up or putting out H+ ions  Life 102 ­ CSU       Week 02 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery      Chapter 4: Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life    4.1: Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds  ● Organic Chemistry​: ​the study of compounds containing carbon (organic  compounds)  ○ Most biologically important molecules are organic (besides water)  ○ Biological diversity results from carbon’s ability to form a huge number of  molecules with particular shapes and functions      4.2: Carbon atoms can form diverse molecules by bonding to four other atoms  ● Tetravalent​: ​the ability to make 4 bonds  ○ Makes carbon a good element to build molecules with  ● Carbon Skeleton​: ​how individual carbon atoms are joined to one another  ○ Can vary in length, number and position of bonds, side groups, and shape  ■ Variations create different substances with different functions  ○ Hydrocarbons​:​ organic molecules made of only carbon and hydrogen  ■ Many organic molecules in a cell consist of hydrocarbons  ● Ex: fats have long hydrocarbon tails  ● Isomers​:​ compounds that have the same numbers of atoms of the same  elements but different structures and hence different properties  ○ Structural Isomers​: ​molecules that differ in the arrangements of their  atoms  ■ Ex: Butane and Isobutane have different structures and, therefore,  different functions  ● Butane:      Life 102 ­ CSU       Week 02 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery              ● Isobutane: same atomic composition with a different  structure    ● Cis Trans Isomers​: ​molecules with different arrangement of the side  groups next to a double bond  ○ The side groups can either be on the same side of the double bond  or opposite sides  ● Enantiomers​:​ molecules that are mirror images of eachother  ○ Like left and right hands      4.3: A few chemical groups are key to molecular function  ● Side Groups​: ​molecules that attach to a different molecule and change the  function of the overall molecule  ○ Hydroxyl Group​: ​polar, neutral pH, alcohol  Life 102 ­ CSU       Week 02 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  ■ Structure: C​­OH   ○ Carbonyl Group​:  ​ polar, neutral pH, aldehyde/keton  ■ Structure: C= ​ O  ○ Carboxyl Group​: ​acidic, carboxylic acid  ■ Structure: C​OOH  ■ Can donate H+ ions  ○ Amino Group​: ​basic, amine  ■ Structure: C​­NH₂  ■ Sucks up H+ ions to raise pH  ○ Sulfhydryl Group​: ​neutral pH, thiol  ■ Structure: C​­SH  ■ Binds to other sulfhydryl groups through disulfide bridges  ● Disulfide Bridges​: ​extremely strong bonds that help  stabilize the structure of proteins  ○ Phosphate Group​: ​polar, reactive, acidic, organic phosphate  ■ Structure: C​­PO₄  ■ Reacts with water, which releases energy (ATP)  ● ATP​:​ primary energy transferring molecule in a cell (has 3  phosphate groups)  ○ Methyl Group​: ​does not give Carbon (C) a different function  ■ Addition of a methyl group to DNA affects gene expression  ● Affects the gene that makes you male or female      Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules    5.1: Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers  ● Monomers​: “​building blocks”  ● Polymers​:​ chains of monomers  Life 102 ­ CSU       Week 02 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  ● Dehydration Synthesis​: ​a reaction that links two monomers together, releasing  water  ○ Builds units up into larger polymers  ● Hydrolysis​: ​a reaction that splits polymers into monomers, releasing water  ○ Reverse reaction to dehydration synthesis      5.2: Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material  ● Polysaccharides​: ​complex polymers made of subunits of sugar  ○ Monosaccharides​: ​the sugar subunits that make up polysaccharides   ○ Disaccharides​: t ​ wo monomers bonded together  ● Carbohydrates​: sugars and their polymers that are a combination of carbon and  water  ○ Function as fuel (ex: starch, glycogen) and structural support (ex:  cellulose, chitin)  ○ ▯­glucose and β­ glucose​: ​linear version of glucose folding in opposite  ways, resulting in different functions  ■ Hydroxyl group below plane of sugar in ▯­glucose and above plane  of sugar in β­ glucose  ■ Starch is the polymer of ▯­glucose, cellulose is the polymer of β­  glucose      5.3: Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules   ● Lipids​: h​ ydrophobic molecules that are not polymers  ● Fats​: ​ a molecule constructed of glycerol and fatty acids  ○ Saturated Fats​: ​solid at room temperature because there are no double  bonds in the hydrocarbon tail which allows the molecules to pack tightly  together  Life 102 ­ CSU       Week 02 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  ○ Unsaturated Fats​: ​liquid at room temperature because there are one or  more double bonds in the hydrocarbon tail which causes kinks and makes  the molecules unable to pack tightly together  ● Phospholipids​: ​an amphipathic glycerol with a hydrophilic phosphate head and  two hydrophobic tails; creates a bilayer that makes up cellular membranes  ○ Amphipathic​: ​both hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions  ● Steroids​: ​hydrophobic cholesterol and cholesterol­derived molecules  ○ Helps keep the cellular membrane fluid and function as signal molecules      5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions  ● Protein​: ​a biologically functional molecule made up of three or more  polypeptides coiled into a specific 3­D shape  ○ Polymers of amino acids  ■ Depending on their side group, amino acids can be nonpolar/polar,  uncharged/charged, and acidic/basic  ■ Linked by peptide bonds through dehydration synthesis  ○ Primary Structure​: ​sequence of amino acids  ■ “String of pearls” connected by peptide bonds  ○ Secondary Structure​: ​folding of the amino acid chain into α­helix or  β­sheet   ■ “Slinky” or “accordion” connected by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic  interactions, electrostatic forces, and disulfide bridges  ○ Tertiary Structure​: ​folding of the polypeptide chain into the final 3D  shape  ■ Function of the protein results from this structure  ■ Stabilized by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions,  electrostatic forces, and disulfide bridges  ○ Quaternary Structure​: ​connection of two or more polypeptide chains   Life 102 ­ CSU       Week 02 Notes      StudySoup ­ Avery  ■ Stabilized by hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions,  electrostatic forces, and disulfide bridges               


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