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Psyc 1100 Week 2 Notes

by: brooklyn.walls

Psyc 1100 Week 2 Notes Psyc 1100

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Week 2 lecture notes covering evolutionary theory
Intro to Biological Psychology
Ken Sayers
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by brooklyn.walls on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1100 at Georgia State University taught by Ken Sayers in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Biological Psychology in Psychology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Evolutionary theory  The history and mechanisms of descent with modification Theory  "a...general principle supported by substantial evidence offered to provide an explanation of observed facts and as a basis for future discussions or investigations" Evolution  Change over time  Microevolution: short-term changes within population  Macroevolution: long-term changes and appearance of new species Evolution as Fact and Theory  Popular definition of theory ≠ rigorous scientific definition  Microevolution has been observed & macroevolution has withstood repeated testing  There is no disagreement between biologists concerning reality of evolution Before Natural Selection  Middle Ages: idea of young Earth & the fixity of species  Church dominated thought--> change over time and extinction viewed as impossible in "God's perfect world" Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656)  Using Old Testament, determined the exact time of creation  4004 B.C. October 23 William Paley (1743-1805)  Natural Theology (1802)  Found "perfections" in nature as evidence of design (e.g. vertebrate eye, bird beaks)  Others later used these perfections as examples of evolutionary adaptation The Path to Natural Selection  1858: Wallace & Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism to explain evolutionary change; many early thinkers influenced them  They did not come up with the theory of evolution Anaximander (610-546 B.C.)  Called by HF Osborn as "the first evolutionist"  Thought life arose in water and that simpler life forms preceded more complex forms  Thought that humans arose from "fish that forsook the seas" John Ray (1627-1705)  Observed that plants & animals can be grouped by their ability/non-ability to reproduce with one another  Distinguished groups through comparative anatomy Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)  Wrote the Systema Naturae, a classification of plants & animals  Standardized use of genus and species Classification of Modern Humans  Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species  Humans: Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Primate, Hominidae, Homo sapiens Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)  Accepted evolution  Explained evolution with "use and disuse" or inheritance of acquired characteristics Georges Cuvier (1769-1832)  Paleontologist who introduced concept of extinction to explain why fossil organisms were no longer around  Supported catastrophism, not evolution Charles Lyell (1797-1875)  "Father of modern geology"  Proposed that slow-acting forces (wind, rain, etc.) drive geological change  Uniformitarianism  "deep time" allowed necessary time for evolutionary change Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)  Wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population  Warned that human pop. increase would exhaust food supply  Wallace & Darwin extended this concept of "limited resources" to the natural world Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913)  Collected animals in the Amazon and SE Asia  Described evolution as process driven by competition and natural selection  Poor family but had interest in natural history; made money by collecting specimens for museums  Traveled in Brazil with Henry Walter Bates (1825-1892) and later Indonesia  Malarial delirium in Indonesia--> realized death would fall unequally on a variable species--> less favored varieties would become extinct--> upon recovery, wrote up his ideas & sent them to Darwin  Unknown to Wallace, Darwin had come up with a similar idea, but had not published it  Papers from both men published jointly in 1858  Some texts don't mention Wallace at all, but is considered by many to be the "father of biogeography"  Wallace's Line: separates 2 important zoogeographical regions; a zone of mixing near the line is called Wallacea Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  Independently conceived process of natural selection  Wrote On the Origins of Species (1859)  Wealthy family; poor student, studied medicine and theology, but had strong interest in naturalism  1831: became naturalist on 5 year around-the-world journey of the HMS Beagle--> found fossils of animals similar to living forms in South America--> studied living forms and noted evidence of common ancestry--> also studied fauna on Galapagos Islands & Australia/New Zealand  Conceived idea of "descent with modification" (evolution) during voyage  Upon return, studied animal breeding, read Malthus, & wrote (but didn't publish) a manuscript on "species origins" in 1844 Natural Selection  Among individuals there is competition for resources  Individuals differ from one another (biological variation)  More individuals are born than survive to reproduce; among those that live, there's variation in how many offspring they have (differential reproductive success or fitness)  Individuals who possess favorable traits are more likely to survive and reproduce--> parents transmit traits to offspring  Genetics is the mechanism of transmission, although neither Wallace or Darwin knew this at the time


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