The Nervous System and the Brain
The Nervous System and the Brain Psych 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
The Nervous System and the Brain Neural Communication Neuron basic building block of the nervous system Dendrite part of neuron that receives messages from other cells and passes the messages to the cell body Cell body control center of neuron, contains nucleus Axon sends messages to other neurons, glands, muscles, etc. Myelin sheath fatty tissue covering some axons, speeds conduction of neural impulse Synapse junction between axon of one neuron and dendrite of another Receptor protein that binds neurotransmitters, hormones, or drugs Action potential brief electrical charge that travels down an axon; caused by positively charged ions moving in and out of channels on the axon’s membrane Threshold the level of stimulation required to trigger an action potential; threshold is reached through depolarization Depolarization when the inside of an axon becomes more positive through an inward flow of ions Allornone action potentials can’t be partial, they either happen or they don’t Refractory period the period in which a new action potential can’t occur Hyperpolarization return of the inside of the axon to a more negative charge Neurotransmitters Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons and bind to receptors Dopamine movement, learning, attention, emotion, reward (linked with schizophrenia, Parkinson’s) Serotonin mood, hunger, sleep, arousal (linked with depression) Norepinephrine alertness and arousal (linked with depression) Endorphins natural opiatelike transmitters linked to pain control and pleasure 5060 types of know neurotransmitters Central Nervous System Spinal cord Brain Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain Hindbrain Cerebellum (little brain) coordinates voluntary movement, balance Lower brain stem automatic survival functions, crossover point for information leaving and entering the brain Medulla controls heartbeat and breathing Pons bridge between cerebellum and brainstem Midbrain Upper brain stem integration of sensory processes Reticular formation arousal, sleep, pain perception, relay center Forebrain Thalamus sensory relay center (except smell) and integrator Hypothalamus maintenance temperature regulation, eating, drinking, sexual behavior, helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland; reward center and linked to emotion Limbic system basic drives and emotion Hippocampus memory processing Amygdala fear, aggression, emotion Hypothalamus, thalamus Nucleus accumbens part of dopamine reward system Cerebrum higherorder control, information processing, reasoning, personality, intelligence, language Frontal lobe motor initiation Prefrontal cortex attention, planning, sense of self, social life Parietal lobe somatosensory (touch) Occipital lobe vision Temporal lobe hearing Hemispheric Specialization Lefthemisphere language Righthemisphere spatial reasoning and orientation, facial recognition, reading maps, drawing geometric shapes Corpus callosum connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate Plasticity Brain changes with experience, connections are flexible Examples: city taxi drivers, string musicians Decreases with age, especially if you don’t use your brain Nervous System Central (brain Peripheral and spinal cord) Somatic Autonomic (voluntary) (automatic) Parasympath Sympathetic etic
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