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The Nervous System and the Brain

by: Phoebe Notetaker

The Nervous System and the Brain Psych 101

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Social Science > Psych 101 > The Nervous System and the Brain
Phoebe Notetaker

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About this Document

These notes cover basic terminology of neural communication, the different nervous system parts, and the different areas of the brain
General Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, psych101, Intro to Psychology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
The Nervous System and the Brain ­Neural Communication   Neuron­ basic building block of the nervous system  Dendrite­ part of neuron that receives messages from other cells and passes the messages  to the cell body  Cell body­ control center of neuron, contains nucleus  Axon­ sends messages to other neurons, glands, muscles, etc.  Myelin sheath­ fatty tissue covering some axons, speeds conduction of neural impulse  Synapse­ junction between axon of one neuron and dendrite of another  Receptor­ protein that binds neurotransmitters, hormones, or drugs   Action potential­ brief electrical charge that travels down an axon; caused by positively  charged ions moving in and out of channels on the axon’s membrane  Threshold­ the level of stimulation required to trigger an action potential; threshold is  reached through depolarization  Depolarization­ when the inside of an axon becomes more positive through an inward  flow of ions  All­or­none­ action potentials can’t be partial, they either happen or they don’t  Refractory period­ the period in which a new action potential can’t occur  Hyperpolarization­ return of the inside of the axon to a more negative charge ­Neurotransmitters  Chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons and bind to  receptors  Dopamine­ movement, learning, attention, emotion, reward (linked with schizophrenia,  Parkinson’s)  Serotonin­ mood, hunger, sleep, arousal (linked with depression)  Norepinephrine­ alertness and arousal (linked with depression)  Endorphins­ natural opiate­like transmitters linked to pain control and pleasure  50­60 types of know neurotransmitters ­Central Nervous System  Spinal cord  Brain  ­Hindbrain ­Midbrain ­Forebrain ­Hindbrain  Cerebellum (little brain)­ coordinates voluntary movement, balance  Lower brain stem­ automatic survival functions, crossover point for information leaving  and entering the brain ­Medulla­ controls heartbeat and breathing ­Pons­ bridge between cerebellum and brainstem ­Midbrain  Upper brain stem­ integration of sensory processes  Reticular formation­ arousal, sleep, pain perception, relay center ­Forebrain  Thalamus­ sensory relay center (except smell) and integrator  Hypothalamus­ maintenance­ temperature regulation, eating, drinking, sexual behavior,  helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland; reward center and linked to  emotion  Limbic system­ basic drives and emotion ­Hippocampus­ memory processing ­Amygdala­ fear, aggression, emotion ­Hypothalamus, thalamus ­Nucleus accumbens­ part of dopamine reward system  Cerebrum­ higher­order control, information processing, reasoning, personality,  intelligence, language ­Frontal lobe­ motor initiation ­Prefrontal cortex­ attention, planning, sense of self, social life ­Parietal lobe­ somatosensory (touch) ­ Occipital lobe­ vision ­Temporal lobe­ hearing ­Hemispheric Specialization  Left­hemisphere­ language  Right­hemisphere­ spatial­ reasoning and orientation, facial recognition, reading maps,  drawing geometric shapes  Corpus callosum­ connects the two hemispheres and allows them to communicate ­Plasticity  Brain changes with experience, connections are flexible  Examples: city taxi drivers, string musicians  Decreases with age, especially if you don’t use your brain Nervous System Central (brain Peripheral and spinal cord) Somatic Autonomic (voluntary) (automatic) Parasympath Sympathetic etic


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