Classical Mythology Week 2 and 3
Classical Mythology Week 2 and 3 FL 4143
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dana Bramlitt on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FL 4143 at Mississippi State University taught by Scott Di Giulio in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
Classical Mythology Notes Week 2 Prof. Scott DiGiulio Hesiod Earliest individual poet in Greek. o Working probably in the 8 /7 c. BCE Works o Theogony o Works and Days o Catalogue of Women (only survives in fragments) list of mythological women, their exploits, children, and husbands We infer from his poetry that: o Lived in Ascra, Boeotia (Greek mainland) o Competed in poetic competitions Agonistic Culture: (agon means contest in Greek) Hesiod’s Theogony Poem o Written in the “epic” dialect of Greek also in the meter of epic: dactylic hexameter Theogony o Account of the birth of the gods (gonos= birth, theoi= gods) Cosmogony o Account of the creation of the universe. Hymn? o Epiphany o First 115 lines when the muses appear Setting of Theogony Hesiod was around the Mt. Helicon (near/below Delphi) Hesiod and The Muses Theogony 2729 “Hillbillies and bellies poor excuses for shepherds, we know how to tell many believable lies, but also, when we want to, how to speak the plain truth.” Hesiod’s Muses o Muse Domain o Clio History o Euterpe Lyric poetry o Thaleia Comedy o Melpomene Tragedy o Terpsichore Choral song and dance o Erato Love poetry o Polyhymnia Sacred poetry o Urania Astronmy o Calliope Epic poetry *Theogony 99104 Outline of the Theogony Proem/‘Hymn’ to the Muses 1115 Chaos and the first gods 116125 o Earth, Tartaros, Eros, Erebos, Night The generation of Cronos 126232 o Children of Night and Earth; castration of Ouranos (Heaven) birth of Aphrodite Descendants of the Sea 233455 Descendants of the Titans 456508 Three challenges to Zeus 509885 Children of the Olympians 886969 Farewell 970975 Goddesses that slept with mortals 976end Narrative Building Blocks Proem Catalogues Episodes What is a catalogue? A list *Theogony 7680 What do they do? Serves as a reference to who someone is. There are no previous records of these people, so this gives us some background. Also, they are creating the authoritative list. What are the principal ‘episodes’ of the Theogony? Castration of Heaven (Ouranos) o Birth of Aphrodite Cronos devouring his children o Birth of Zeus on Crete Challenges to Zeus’ power o Prometheus o Titanomachy (battle of Titans) o Typhoeus (Typhon) Birth of Aphrodite The castration of Ouranos Aphrodite and others were born from the blood of Ouranos. Prometheus Means forethought and cunning in Greek Etiology Greek sacrifices Prometheus tricks the gods, gets punished by being bound to a rock as an eagle eats his liver everyday. Typhoeus Conquered and banished by Zeus Nature of the gods Anthropmorphic o Principal dwelling place on Olympus o Food nectar and ambrosia o Bloodichor o Sexuality o Stronger, faster, and more beautiful than humans not omnipresent/omniscient o Can take life, but they can’t bestow it. Pandora Man’s punishment after receiving fire from Prometheus. Parallels for Hesiod Enuma Elish (Babylonian, no later than 1100 BCE) Kingship in Heaven (Hittite) Song of Ullikummi (Hittite) Enuma Succession crisis o Conflict between Apsu and his child o Tiamat turns on child o Like Hesiod, envisions the formation and organization of the world as process and change. Kingship Very fragmented but similar succession myths and conflicts between generations o Alalush overthrown by Anush Kumarbi o Storm god ultimately overthrows Song of Ullikummi Kumarbi plans to kill his son Teshub, the storm god. Begets.. The Earliest Men; Zeus and Hera Theogony’s Major Themes Succession o Titans take over from Ouranos; Olympians take over from Titans Power of Myth Hymn of the Muses Intro of Order to Comos Creation of Men Not present in Theogony, although there we have stories that touch on early man. o Prometheus tricks gods with sacrifice; give men fire o Pandora gods created her to punish men Generally, fairly few myths about creation in Classical Myth, and rarely their own subject. o More interested in regional origins. *Hesiod Works and Days 129134 Five Races of Men Hesiod describes five races, each named after a metal o Gold (129147) predates Zeus’ reign o Silver (148160) created and destroyed by Zeus o Bronze (161177) o Heroes (178194) o Iron (195234) current generation of human beings An Alternate Creation Apollodorus Library 22.214.171.124.3 o Prometheus actually created humans according to Apollodorus. The Flood Myth Zeus goes among men of the Bronze Age to see whether they are good. After meeting the king Lycaon, Zeus chooses to destroy humanity. Deucalion, the son of Promtheus, and his wife, Pyrrha, daughter of Epimetheus and Pandora, survive. Begin to repopulate mankind Ancient Flood Myths Other examples o Noah (JudeoChristian) o Ziusudra and Utnapishtism (Akkadian) o Parallels in Hindu mythology Common tropes Majority of mankind destroyed because of vice Mankind originally comes from the earth Simple pairings Why is this myth so common? Principle episodes of the Theogony Castration of Heaven (Ouranos) o Birth of Aphrodite Kronos devouring his children o Birth of Zeus on Crete Challenges to Zeus’ power o Prometheus o Titanomachy o Typhoeus (Typhon) Zeus Epithets: “most glorious; “most great;” “most supreme” Father of the gods and men o Zeu pater in Greek is very frequent as early as Homer Attributes: Scepter, eagle, thunderbolts “Nothing comes to fulfillment without Zeus” o Aeschylus’ Agamemnon, line 1487 Zeus Overview Son of Kronos and Rhea Born on Crete in secret Overthrows Kronos, saves Olympians, and becomes king of the gods Overcomes three major challenges to rule o Prometheus o Defeat of Titans (imprisoned in Tartarus) o Defeat of Typhoeus/Typhon o Ultimately marries sister Hera: “sacred wedding” But has many children with other women and goddesses other than Hera o Looking ahead tends to side with Troy during the Trojan War The Hesiodic Zeus; Works and Days 120 Zeus as god of justice In the Theogony, marries Themis (‘Order’) and is father of Dike (‘Right’) Also punisher of oathbreakers and protector of suppliants o Archilochus (lyric poet, 6 cth Towards an early monotheism? Aeschylus fr. 70 (first half of 5 c. BCE) o “Zeus is sky, Zeus is earth, Zeus is heaven; Zeus is everything and all that is beyond these things.” Zeus as moral? Xenophanes (6 c. BCE lyric poet) fr. 11 o “Both Homer and Hesiod ascribed to the gods all things that evoke reproach and blame among human beings, theft and adultery, and mutual deception.” Prototype: Phidias’ Zeus o Pausanias description of Greece 5.11.1 Attributions of Zeus Scepter, eagle, thunderbolts, aegris (shield/breastplate) Hera Consort of Zeus, and thus queen of heaven Goddess of marriage o Also mother of Eris, goddesss of discord including marital strife Goddess of fertility and childbirth Strongly supports the Greeks in the Trojan War (feels slighted by the Judgement of Paris) Hera’s Centers of Worship Samos oldest temple to/in her aspect as god of marriage th Argos oldest shrine in the region; right outside of the city. It’s at least 6 c. Pausanias description of Greece 2.17.17 Hesido Theogony 926928 “Last of all Zeus made Hera his blossoming wife, And she gave birth to Hebe (youth), Eileithyia (childbirth), and Ares (War; only Olympian). After mingling in love with the lord of gods and men.” A “sacred wedding” (heirosgamos) violates incest taboo, mass amount of infidelity, never a happy marriage. The Binding of Hera Pausanias description of Greece 1.20.3 Aprhodite In the Theogony Born from genitals of castrated Ouranos (Uranus) Born on island of Cyprus Born from the foam that collects around the severed parts of Ouranos Name implied to mean foam The Birth of Eros One of the first gods in the Theogony 2 possible traditions? o Hesiod Theogony 116122 o Hesiod Theogony 201202 Eros and the Erotes An Alternate Tradition: Plato’s Symposium 20362c5 Aprhodite as a Near Eastern goddess? Ishtar/Inamna Sumerian and Babylonian goddess of fertility and love Isis Egyptian Aprhodite Epithets Ourania (the heavenly) Chrysea (the golden) Kypris (from Cyprus) Philommeides (laughterloving) possibly related to Philommedes (genitalloving) Pandemos (of all the people) Polos (with the high crown) Daughter of Zeus Epistrophia (she who turns [to love]) Aside: The Aprhodite of Knidos Most famous of antiquity Renowned for its beauty Plato Epigram 17 “When Cypris saw Cypris at Cnidus, ‘Alas! Said she; where did Praxiteles see me nake?’” Aprhodite Kallipygos Athenaeus The Learned Banqueters 554bc Aprhodite as a Cause of Strife Judgment of Paris Cheats on her husband Hephaestus “The Song of Ares and Aprhodite” Causes the other gods to commit adultery as well, including (especially) Zeus. Homeric Hymn ‘To Aprhodite’ Attributed to Homer o Written in Homeric language and meter One of the four long Hymns (out of 33 total) Zeus’ revenge on Aphrodite Main episodes: seduction of Anehises; epiphany of the goddess and his son, Aeneas Questions for reflection What are the central relations in the hymn? How do interactions between gods differ from those between gods and mortals? Why would a hymn in praise of Aphrodite be putting her in a humiliating situation? Ares Hesiod Theogony 926928 Mythic Traditions Son of Zeus and Hera Personification of ‘blood lust’ Several children with Aphrodite o Phobos (fear) o Deinos (dread) o In some accounts, Harmonia Most important in mythology for his affairs with Aphrodite. The Gods’ Attitudes Towards Ares Homer Iliad 5. 889898 The Song of Ares and Aphrodite
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