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Chem 111 - Week 02 Notes

by: AveryLemler

Chem 111 - Week 02 Notes Chem 111

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About this Document

These notes are a combination of book notes and lecture notes.
General Chemistry I
Dr. Ruth Tucker
Class Notes
Chemistry, General Chemistry, Colorado State University, Energy, Molecules, Subatomic Particles, Lecture Notes, Book, notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by AveryLemler on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Ruth Tucker in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/03/16
Chem 111 - CSU Week 02 Notes StudySoup - Avery Chapter 2 2.1: The Rutherford Model of Atomic Structure • Subatomic Particles: the neutrons, protons, and electrons in an atom • Cathode Rays: streams of electrons emitted by the cathode in a partially evacuated tube • Electron: a subatomic particle that has a relative charge of -1 and essentially zero mass • Located outside of the nucleus • Ion: an atom or molecule that has a positive or negative charge • Cation: a positively charged ion • Anion: a negatively charged ion • Trick to Remember: ANger is a NEGATIVE emotion - ANions are NEGATIVE • Radioactivity: the spontaneous emission of high-energy radiation and particles by materials • Beta Particle: a radioactive emission that is a high-energy electron • Alpha Particle: a radioactive emission with a charge of +2 and a mass equivalent to that of a helium nucleus • Nucleus: the center of an atom that contains nearly all of the atom’s mass • Positively charged • Proton: a subatomic particle that has a relative charge of +1 and a mass number of 1 • Present in the nucleus of an atom • Neutron: an electrically neutral (uncharged) subatomic particle with a mass number of 1 • Present in the nucleus of an atom • Atomic Mass Unit (amu): unit used to express the relative masses of atoms and subatomic particles • Exactly 1/12 the mass of 1 atom of carbon with 6 protons and 6 neutrons in its nucleus Chem 111 - CSU Week 02 Notes StudySoup - Avery • Dalton (Da): a unit of mass equal to 1 atomic mass unit 2.2: Nuclides and Their Symbols • Isotopes: atoms of an element containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons • Nuclide: a specific isotope of an element • Atomic Number (Z): the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom • Nucleon: a proton or neutron in a nucleus • Mass Number (A): the number of nucleons in an atom 2.3: Navigating the Periodic Table • Periodic Table of the Elements: a chart of the elements in order of their atomic numbers and in a pattern based on their physical and chemical properties • Period: a row in the periodic table • Group/Family: a column in the periodic table • Radionuclide: a radioactive (unstable) nuclide • Halogen: an element in group 17 of the periodic table • Alkali Metal: an element in group 1 of the periodic table • Alkaline Earth Metal: an element in group 2 of the periodic table • Metals: elements that are typically shiny, malleable, ductile solids that conduct heat and electricity well and tend to form positive ions • Nonmetals: elements with properties opposite those of metals, including poor conductivity of heat and electricity • Metalloids/Semimetals: elements that tend to have the physical properties of metals and the chemical properties of nonmetals • Main Group Elements/Representative Elements: the elements in groups 1, 2, and 13 through 18 of the periodic table • Transition Metals: the elements in groups 3 through 12 of the periodic table • Noble Gases: the elements in group 18 of the periodic table Chem 111 - CSU Week 02 Notes StudySoup - Avery 2.4: The Masses of Atoms, Ions, and Molecules • Average Atomic Mass: the average of the masses of all isotopes of an element • Natural Abundance of One Isotope x Mass of One Isotope = Product • Do this for each isotope of an element • Add each product together to get the average atomic mass • Natural Abundance: a measure of the average amount of an isotope to occur naturally on Earth • Molecular Mass: the mass of one molecule of a molecular compound • Measured in amu 2.5: Moles and Molar Masses • Mole (mol): the SI base unit for expressing the amount of a substance that contains Avogadro’s Number of particles • Avogadro’s Numbe:r6.0221 x 10 ; the number of particles in one mole • Molar Mass: the mass of 1 mole of a substance Chapter 1 1.2: Forms of Energy • Energy: the ability to do work • Work: the energy required to move an object through a given distance • Heat: the spontaneous flow of energy from a warm object to a cooler one • Touching your hand to an ice cube causes energy to move from your hand to the ice • Potential Energy: the energy stored in an object because of its position or composition • A skateboarder on a ramp will have the highest potential energy at the top of the ramp, and the lowest potential energy at the bottom of the ramp • Kinetic Energy: the energy of an object in motion due to its mass and its speed Chem 111 - CSU Week 02 Notes StudySoup - Avery • A skateboarder on a ramp will have the highest kinetic energy at the bottom of the ramp, and the lowest kinetic energy at the top of the ramp • Law of Conservation of Energy: energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only transferred from one form to another


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