General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016)
General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) PHYS151
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Saturday September 3, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS151 at University of Nevada - Las Vegas taught by Dr. Pang in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see General Physics I in Physics at University of Nevada - Las Vegas.
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Date Created: 09/03/16
General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) Key to my notes: all notes that are taken from the lecture will be the first section, notes I take from the textbook will be the second section, and the vocabulary words from the chapter with definitions will be the last sections! (: Lecture Notes Know the Greek letters because they will be used in class Physics is the study of structure, stability, and motion change of matter The most important laws for physics are the fundamental laws Mathematics plays a huge part in physics o Calculating everything involves algebra of some sort When giving an answer in physics it is important to pay attention to the units that it is in and it has the correct number of significant figures o Only use the SI units for class Meter for length Second for time Kilogram for mass Ampere for electric current Kelvin for temperature Mole for amount of substance Candela for luminous intensity o Make sure everything is always in the same units as well o Units that were named after someone are capital Speed of light has infinite significant figures When looking at significant figures the last digit is the one that is uncertain In physics you deal with two physical quantities o Scalar described by an amount (sign or not) Always positive Example would be distance o Vectordescribed by a magnitude and direction Example would be bank account because you can either be in the positives and let saving grow or be in the negatives and overdraft When measuring vectors it is read from the second word and the first so south of west would be in the III quadrant of a graph Can move the vector around as long as it stays parallel with the original Find the vector by multiplying magnitude and direction together Unit vectors are 1 Adding and Subtracting Vectors o Start at first vector and go to the second one when drawing it out visually but do not use for actual solving General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) The new vector when you draw from the tail (end or where the arrow is not pointing) of the first to the head of the last (start or where the arrow is pointing) is called a resultant o To find the components of any vector you break it down to the x component, y component, and z component (if it is in threedimensional space) o to find the magnitude of the resultant vector it is the square root of the components of the other vectors scared each o check out this simple link to help get the basic idea because they break it down and show what I said in words adding: http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/physics/chapter4section2.r html Subtracting: http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/physics/chapter4section3.r html Multiplying Vectors o Scalar multiplication (sometimes called the dot method) can be found if it is Scalar A times Scalar B then to multiple it you will multiple A times B and then multiply it by the cosine of the angle between A and B Link: http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/physics/chapter4section4.r html o vector multiplication (sometimes called cross product) can be found can be found if it is Vector A times Vector B then to multiple it you will multiple A times B and then multiply it by the sine of the angle between A and B to help know which direction the vector will go use the right hand rule: The right hand rule is a rule that uses the shape of our right hand to help make sure that our vector we are multiplying is going in the right direction. If solving a vector product C = A × B, the direction of C is able to be estimated by pointing the right hand with fingers straight in the direction of A, and then bending the fingers in the direction of B. the thumb will give a rough estimate of the direction of C now General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) link: http://www.sparknotes.com/testprep/books/sat2/physics/chapter4section6.r html Textbook Notes Physics like all other sciences are powered by curiosity Physics goal is to analyze how things work, provide a foundation to other scientific and engineering fields, and trains students to reason logically Brief History of Physics o Physics has been around since the beginning of time Cavemen trying to make fire through friction Ancient Chinese used magnetism and aerodynamics to create compasses and gun powered driven rockets o Galileo (15641642) Introduced what is known as an experiment Studied the solar system to objects free falling on earth Father of experimental physics o Newton (16421727) Became the father of theoretical physics Famous 3 fundamental laws of motion Assumed gravity between two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the distance of separation Derived planetary motion using Kepler’s (15171630) law which marked the start of theoretical physics o The division between experiment and theory is the result of how physics work Experiments father data and deduce the general behavior and that then leads to discoveries that are summarized into laws of physics o Joseph Lagrange (17361813) Developed Newton’s theory further into analytical mechanics Introduced a function called Lagrangian that is the difference between the kinetic energy and the potential energy Found a better language in describing complex dynamical system without relying on a picture Famous book Analytical Mechanics I first physics book that did not have some kind of diagram General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) o Thermodynamics was developed gradually but took its main boost through the 19 century Jean Fourier (17681830) and Nicolas Carnot (17961832) made the first theory of thermodynamics James Joule (18181889) formulated the laws of thermodynamics Rudolf Clausius (18221888) introduced the concept of entropy Josiah Gibbs (18391903) put statistical mechanics in final form th o Electromagnetic was developed gradually but took its main boost late 18 th century and early 19 century Charles Augustin de Coulomb (17361806) discovered the laws that governs the electrostatic force between two charged particles Michael Faraday (17911867)quantified the lactic motive force induced by the flux change of the magnetic field Lord Kelvin (William Thomson) (18241907) put Faraday’s work into mathematical words Heinrich Rudolph Hertz (18571894) preformed the experiments to prove it Hendrik Lorentz (18571925) and Oliver Heaviside (1850 1925) simplified the equations o Modern Physics did not start until the early 20 century Albert Einstein (18791955) introduced the special theory and general theory of relativity Hermann Minkowski (18641909) introduced space David Hilbert (18621943) constructed the covariant field equations for relativity Max Planck (18581947) introduced the concept of quantum in explaining the blackbody radiation Niels Bohr (18851962) a quantum model for the hydrogen atom Werner Heisenberg (19011976) and Erwin Schrodinger (18871961) discovered two different forms of quantum mechanics Fundamental laws are the basic for physics Principle is used loosely so it could mean theorem or fundamental Some physicists believe that we can eventually describe everything within a unified theory, the theory of everything (TOE) Mathematics is the language of physics Scientists need to have a way to measure quantities to compare them properly General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) Units were originally everyday objects and it made trading and communication difficult Meter is length of the path traveled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 f a second The second is the duration of 9192631770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom. Always use the SI units o If a given quantity is given in differenconvert it to the SI unit first before carrying out any calculation. Always express answer in scientific notion. o q = w.xyz . . . (αβ . . .) × 10n unit Rule for additions and a subtraction is that the one with the largest uncertainty dictates the result. Rule for multiplications and divisions is that the factor with smallest number of significant figures dictates the outcome Knowledge can equally be applied for good or evil. Know the Greek letters because they are used constantly Name Upper Case Letter Lower Case Letter Alpha Α α Beta Β β Gamma Γ γ Delta Δ δ Epsilon Ε ε Zeta Ζ ζ Eta Η η Theta Θ θ Iota Ι ι Kappa Κ κ Lambda Λ λ Mu Μ μ Nu Ν ν Xi Ξ ξ Omicron Ο ο Pi Π π Rho Ρ ρ Sigma Σ σ/ς Tau Τ τ Upsilon Υ υ Phi Φ φ Chi Χ χ Psi Ψ ψ General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) omega Ω ω Vocabulary Words Note: These are in order as they showed up in the chapter, not in alphabetical Physics: a fundamental area of study of the structures and dynamics of physical systems, ranging from subatomic particles to the entire universe. As a subject matter, physics addresses the relation between fundamental forces and natural phenomena, such a nuclear reactions, radiation, and formation of atoms or molecules, while providing thorough explanations to complicated process Experiment: a set of rigorous procedures in studying physics, that is, with measurements, observations, and logical reasoning as the means to unlock the laws of Nature and to reach concise and general conclusions on the motion of a physical system Theory: in physics it is a study of physical systems through mathematical modeling and reason in order to understand, explain, or predict associated physical properties or phenomena Law: in physics is an abstraction of a well established, unique behavior of Nature that has stood against the test of time ad challenges from all the followup experiments and theoretical reasonings Fundamental Law: laws that cannot be derived from other laws or models of physics even though they are consistent with one another Conventional Law: laws that were thought to be unique and appeared to be independent of other laws at the time of discovery, but shown later that they can be derived from, or are the result of, fundamental laws Theorem: in physics typically a concise statement of an important result from a fundamental law Unit: a specified amount of scientific quantity , as of time, length, mass, and so on, by comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is determined SI Units: the standard metric units that are used in sciences Significant Figures: the number of figures in a quantity includes all the certain digits plus the last one that has some uncertainty. Scalar: is a quantity that is completely described by its amount, such as the mass of a pile of dirt General Physics I-Week 1 Notes (August 29, 2016) Vector: a quantity that is completely described by its magnitude and direction, such as the displacement vector d, associated with an object moving from one point to another in space. Succession rule: starting from the beginning of the first vector and finishing at the end of the last vector.
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